Risk Management

Category: Education

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Why Focus on MAHAC Process Industry : 

Why Focus on MAHAC Process Industry Complexity of Reactions Diversity and spread Domino/Cascade effects-Offsite High Inventories, Nature of materials Severity of impact

Benefits-from Chemical Spectrum : 

Benefits-from Chemical Spectrum Audio Cassettes Paints Bubble gum Perfumes Cooking Gas Petrochemicals Detergents Pharmaceuticals Fertilisers Plastics Leather chemicals Semiconductors Masking tapes Tyres

Activity Flow Chart-Project conception : 

Activity Flow Chart-Project conception Engineering Design Technology Options/Selection Layout Planning /Layout Construction Trial Runs Stabilisation Perfecting Operation Validation

Hazards : 

Hazards Every activity has an element of Hazard Hazard leads to Risk Risk Leads to Consequence Consequence impacts vary Weather/Environment factors influence gravity Safe guards and Controls mitigate/ minimise impact

Risk Analysis : 

Risk Analysis Since Hazard is inherent, Risk analysis is essential Broadly there are 5-steps to Risk Analysis


“HSE UK Leaflet”-ADAPT TO SPECIFIC NEED “Step 1 Identify the hazards Step 2 Decide who might be harmed and how Step 3 Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions Step 4 Record your findings and implement them Step 5 Review your assessment and update if necessary”

Step 1-Hazard Identification : 

Step 1-Hazard Identification General applicable Raw Material Pipe/ Tanker receipt Pump Transfer Storage Line out to Production Block

Hazard Sources-Illustrated examples : 

Hazard Sources-Illustrated examples Equipment related Process related Controls related        Natural causes Security related issues:-Arson, Vandalism, IEDs

Piping : 

Piping Leaks from Valves Flanges, Gaskets, Drains/Vents Disconnection of Earthing/Bonding Fatigue /Metallurgical failures

Tanker truck : 

Tanker truck Excess pressure build up in the tanker   Improper earthing/bonding   Leakage/spill   Hot parts of the truck Run downs and Spread   Physical impacts   Movement during loading

Pumps : 

Pumps Seal/gland leaks Electrical Panels =Sparking /arcing/flashovers Loss of integrity of FLP fittings Short circuit

Storage : 

Storage Containment failure  Leaks/Overflow in Tank area  Storage Nozzle/Pipe connection leaks  Instantaneous release of liquid/Vapour  Continuous release of liquid/Vapour

Production/Process : 

Production/Process Equipment Reactors, Exchangers, Boilers, Hot Oil systems, Chillers,Centrifuges, Dryers, Scrubbers, etc

Raw Material : 

Raw Material Combustible Flammable Explosive Toxic Corrrosive Spontaneous igniting Reactive Incompatible etc

Reactions : 

Reactions Hydroforming Catalytic cracking Polymerisation High pressure Synthesis Hydrogenation Halogenation Grignard, Fridel Kraft, Amination etc

Process Parameters : 

Process Parameters Pressure Temperature Flow Level Monitoring & Measurement

Results : 

Results Equipment + Materials+ Reactions+ Process parameters= Products/Bye products Material Balance Un-reacted wastes Recovery, Recycle, Reuse, Reduce Scrubbing, Treatment, Transfer, Emit

Deviations : 

Deviations Leads to Risk. Design Changes without evaluation Operational Failure of Utilities or Cooling system       Scrubbing system failures, Malfunction /Failure of Process Controls Parameter deviations

Incident -Consequences : 

Incident -Consequences Fire Explosion Toxic release

Step-2Consequences- Who might be harmed : 

Step-2Consequences- Who might be harmed People Environment Equipment Materials

Incident--What it Means : 

Incident--What it Means Property Damage /Personnel harm Plant Start-up Delays Restricted Output Downtime Repairs Cost Insurance Costs Public Reaction Societal impact Economic Impact

Related Consequences : 

Related Consequences Legal Statutory Insurance Public Liability

Desirable Approach : 

Desirable Approach Avoid Major Manage Medium Live with Low risk Treat, Tolerate, Transfer, Terminate ALARP ALASA Within Permissible Limits

Step-3 Basis—Risk Analysis : 

Step-3 Basis—Risk Analysis Structured & Relevant Qualitative & Quantitative Adopt applicable methodology CCPS AIChE publication, HSE- UK, US EPA, European Directives Risk Templates used by Accreditation agencies and such

Hazard Analysis : 

Hazard Analysis Typical Applications Activity Technique Design PHA Detailed Engineering Fault Tree / Event Tree Analysis Construction / Startup Checklist/Safety Review Pilot Plant Operation / HAZOP Routine Operation

Hazard Analysis (Contd) : 

Hazard Analysis (Contd) Decommissioning What–If, Checklist Analysis Expansion HAZOP/Relative Ranking R&D What – If Incident Investigation What– If / FMEA / HRA

Step-4 Considerations for Impact Derivations : 

Step-4 Considerations for Impact Derivations On Site risk tabulation Hazmat Inventory volumes Hazard ratings-NFPA, Maximum Credible Scenarios shortlist Weather factors, Environmental risk Exposure factors--Acute/Chronic

Step 5 -Impact estimation/ Assessment Review : 

Step 5 -Impact estimation/ Assessment Review F & E and Mond Indexing TLV/PEL/TEEL/ERPG references BMPPD values estimation AMPPD values estimation Software derivations Recording Risk Impact Assessing Protection & Controls

Protection & Controls : 

Protection & Controls Design /Layout integrated Management controls Process Safety Management Operational Controls Procedural Controls Administrative Controls Emergency combat protection

Design & Layout : 

Design & Layout Codes & Standards Regulatory specifications Demographical considerations Domino/Cascade effects Land use zoning aspects Later additions

Management Controls : 

Management Controls Setting Objectives & Goals Legal Register compliance Audits—Internal, Multi-Disciplinary, External , Statutory Audit follow through Activity Planners Performance Review

Good Audits : 

Good Audits Clarity in Scope definition Standards referenced Audit methodology—LPRM Specialist- Core competency,No rigid formats, No boundaries, Out of the Box approach, Bare all/ Tell all Partners/ Benchmark Facilitators-Reputation driven. Pre-audit survey/information input Physical visit—Opening meeting, Site co-ordinators, Physical tour, Interaction, Documents review, Audit notes, Draft sum-up, Closing meeting, Focus area identification, Action plan Roadmap, Final report



Document Management : 

Document Management Design, Installation, Operation, Final Qualification acceptance criteria Maintenance and History cards Inspection and Condition monitoring trends

People Management : 

People Management Training NEST,STOP, CARE Participative forums Self- Regulating mindset Beyond Compliance

Process Safety Management : 

Process Safety Management Process Safety Information Process Hazard Analysis Standard Operating Procedures Training Contractor control Pre-start up safety review Mechanical Integrity

PSM Contd : 

PSM Contd Non-routine work authorisations Management of Change Investigation of incidents Emergency Preparedness Compliance audit Employee participation

Operational Controls : 

Operational Controls Built in Equipment Safeguards LOPA SIL Instrument Controls-Alarm/Trip/Interlock Remote ESD DCS PLC SCADA

Procedural Controls : 

Procedural Controls SOPs WI Checklists Permits to Work

Change Management/Equipment Management : 

Change Management/Equipment Management Featured in Link http://www.scribd.com/doc/ 20319667/Safety-in-Chemical-and-Hydrocarbon-process-Industry-Change-Management

Change Management-Key aspects : 

Change Management-Key aspects Change involves thinking holistically Change may necessitate downtime Interruption due to incidents can affect safety of personnel and Business economics. Each change review should be situation specific. General references cannot displace internal Multi-disciplinary review and validation. Yet changes can become necessary to continually improve Safety, Health & Environment

Preparedness : 

Preparedness Despite all this and the inescapable Human Error factor it is essential to be well prepared to handle Emergencies to Control, Contain incidents with Nil or Minimal consequential damage

Emergency handling : 

Emergency handling Site specific Emergency Preparedness Plan Drills—Site/Process Specific Evaluation template for Drills Inclusion of Natural perils scenarios—Storm, Building Collapse Security related –IED, Arson, Terrorism, Malicious damage, Riots

SHE Management : 

SHE Management Technology selection, Design Safeguards, Layout form a key triangle in Facility Construction.   Process/Protection controls, Condition monitoring, Site Audits, form the triangle for smooth operations.   Management Controls, Standard Operating Procedures, Training, form the key 3 Administrative measures.   Regulations, Codes and Standards and Third party Audits complete the key elements for successful Management of SHE.

Systematic Analysis/Approach : 

Systematic Analysis/Approach Avoids GUESS “Going Unorganised Eliminating Systematic Study” Enables Focus on Realistic, Practical, Attainable solutions balancing EHS/Business activities Risk Management Plan can be tailored integrating Regulatory needs/EHS Plan/Business Economics. Lends greater credibility to justify implementation costs of Safeguards

Company Benefits : 

Company Benefits Good corporate citizen Reputation management Cost effectiveness Continual improvement Cause focused /Not consequence centric Proactive Vs Reactive Rework avoid

Abbreviations List -AL : 

Abbreviations List -AL ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practical ALASA As Low As Societal Acceptable AMC Annual Maintenance Contract AMPPD Actual Maximum Probable Property Damage BIS Bureau of Indian Standards BMPPD Base Maximum Probable Property Damage CARE Constant Accident Reduction Efforts CCA Cause Consequence Analysis CCPS Centre for Chemical Process Safety DCS Distributed Control System EHS Environment, Health & Safety ERPG Emergency Response Planning Guideline ESD Emergency Safety Device ETA Event Tree Analysis

AL : 

AL F & E Fire & Explosion FLP Flameproof FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis FRLS Fire Resistant Low Smoke FTA Fault Tree Analysis HAZOP Hazard Operability HR Heat Resistant HRA Human Reliability Analysis HSE Health & Safety Executive ID Identity IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health IED Improvised Explosive Devices IP Ingress Protection ISRS International Safety Rating System

AL : 

AL LOP Loss of Profit LOPA Layer of Protection Analysis LPRM Loss Prevention Risk Management MAHAC Major Accident Hazard Category MOC Material of Construction MTBF Mean Time Between Failure MTO Material Transfer Order NDT Non Destructive Testing NEST New Employee Safety Training NFPA National Fire Protection Agency O & M Operation & Maintenance OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer OHSAS Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OSEP On Site Emergency Plan

AL : 

AL P & ID Piping & Instrumentation Diagram PDCA Plan Develop Check and Act PEL Permissible Exposure Limit PEME People, Environment, Materials, Equipment PHA Process Hazard Analysis PLC Programme Logic Control PM Preventive Maintenance PSM Process Safety Management R & D Research & Development RCA Root Cause Analysis SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SHE Safety, Health & Environment SIL Safety Integrity Level SOP Standard Operating Procedure STOP Safety Training Observation Program

AL : 

AL TEEL Temporary Emergency Exposure Limit TLV Threshold Limit Value US EPA United States Environment Protection Agency WI Work Instructions ZH Zero Halogen Source credits: CCPS, HSE -UK,US- EPA, SCAPA, DuPont, Dow Publications Practical Experiences Professional contributions Interactions with Chemical Industry,OEMs.

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