naming-ionic-covalent

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Naming Compounds : 

Naming Compounds What's in a name? That which we call a roseBy any other name would smell as sweet." - William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii)

Background: valences and formulas : 

We can determine the formula of a compound by completing Lewis diagrams or via “valence” Valence is “the number of electrons an atom must gain, lose, or share to complete its octet” For representative elements valence starts at 1 (IA), climbs to 4 (IVA) and falls back to 1 (VIIA) By knowing the valence of elements you can determine the formula of compounds E.g. what compound would form from C + S? Step 1 - write valences: C4S2 Step 2 - cross down valences: C2S4 Background: valences and formulas Step 3 - simplify formula: CS2 a) Al,Br b) K,S c) Zn,O d) Mg,N e) C,Cl f) Cu,O AlBr3 K2S ZnO Mg3N2 CCl4 CuO or Cu2O

Ionic compounds (metal with 1 valence) : 

Ionic compounds (metal with 1 valence) Rules for naming Names end in -ide. Example: sodium chloride Metal (+ve ion) comes 1st (not chorine sodide) Use the group valence for nonmetals Do not capitalized unless starting a sentence Give formulae & name: Ca + I, O + Mg, Na + S = Ca2I1 = CaI2 = calcium iodide = Mg2O2 = MgO = magnesium oxide = Na1S2 = Na2S = sodium sulfide

Multiple valence: Latin naming : 

Multiple valence: Latin naming When the metal in an ionic compound is multi-valent there are 2 methods: Latin or IUPAC Latin is older (not useful for some compounds) As before, the name ends in -ide & +ve is first The metal is named with it’s Latin or English root and ends in -ic or –ous to denote valence E.g. Cu1 is cuprous, E.g. Cu2 is cupric Lower = ous, Higher = ic Give formulas and Latin names for: Cu2 + Cl = Cu2Cl1 = CuCl2 = cupric chloride Co2 + Cl = Co2Cl1 = CoCl2 = cobaltous chloride For latin naming: know rules, remember Hg is an exception, do not memorize Latin names

Multiple valence: IUPAC naming : 

Name ends in -ide, positive/metal comes first The valence of the metal is indicated in brackets using roman numerals E.g. Cu1 is copper(I), Cu2 is copper(II) Numbers refer to valences not to #s of atoms Try: Cu2+Cl, Zn2 + Cl, Co2+Cl, Hg+S (do both) Cu2+Cl = Cu2Cl1 = CuCl2 = copper(II) chloride Zn2+Cl = Zn2Cl1 = ZnCl2 = zinc chloride Co2+Cl = Co2Cl1 = CoCl2 = cobalt(II) chloride Hg+S = Hg1S2 = Hg2S = mercury(I) sulfide Hg+S = Hg2S2 = HgS = mercury(II) sulfide Multiple valence: IUPAC naming

Compounds containing polyatomic ions : 

Groups of atoms can also have valences “Polyatomic ions” are groups of atoms that interact as a single unit. For valence see p95. E.g. OH1, (SO4)2. Ba3(PO4)2 = Compounds containing polyatomic ions So far we have given valences to single atoms Li + O Li1O2  Li2O barium phosphate Naming compounds with polyatomic ions is similar to naming other ionic compounds You should note that compounds with polyatomic ions have names ending in -ate or -ite not -ide Note that most are negative, except ammonium Name: Ca(OH)2, CuSO4, NH4NO3, Co2(CO3)3

Compounds containing polyatomic ions : 

- calcium hydroxide - copper(II) sulfate - ammonium nitrate - cobalt(III) carbonate Ca(OH)2 CuSO4 NH4NO3 Co2(CO3)3 Compounds containing polyatomic ions

Naming covalent compounds : 

Naming covalent compounds -ide ending, each element has “prefix” prefix refers to # of atoms - not valence N2O4 = dinitrogen tetroxide Exception: drop mono for first element CO2 = carbon dioxide The first vowel is often dropped to avoid the combination of “ao” or “oo”. CO = carbon monoxide (monooxide) SO2= sulfur dioxide (doxide) Name: CCl4, P2O3, IF7 P4O10= tetraphosphorus decoxide

Write and name the following covalent compounds (IUPAC) : 

Write and name the following covalent compounds (IUPAC) carbon tetrachloride diphosporus trioxide iodine heptafluoride CCl4 P2O3 IF7 For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com

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