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Historical Perspectives on Curriculum Development : 

Historical Perspectives on Curriculum Development

The development of curriculum in history is basically founded on five outstanding motives: : 

The development of curriculum in history is basically founded on five outstanding motives: The religious The political The utilitarian The mass education motive

The traditional versus modern dimension of the curriculum : 

The traditional versus modern dimension of the curriculum

Traditional Schools : 

Traditional Schools Traditional Schools defined curriculum as a group of subjects arranged in a certain sequences peculiar to the subject filed for the purpose of instruction. Unique needs and interests have been placed second to the “common needs of all”

Modern Dimension of Curriculum : 

Modern Dimension of Curriculum Modern Dimension of curriculum consists of all experiences for learning which are planned and organized by the school. It is composed of the actual experiences and activities of learners inside or outside the classroom under the guidance of the teacher and or which the school accepts responsibility.

Definitions of Curriculum : 

Definitions of Curriculum Some authors define curriculum as “the total effort of the school to bring about desired out-comes in school and out-of school situations” or “a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting”.

Curriculum Planning : 

Curriculum Planning Curriculum plan is the advance arrangement of learning opportunities for a particular population of learners. Curriculum guide is a written curriculum Curriculum planning is the process whereby the arrangement of curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created.

Curriculum Planning : 

Curriculum Planning Curriculum planning It is the process of preparing for the duties of teaching, deciding upon goals and emphases, determining curriculum content, selecting learning resources and classroom procedures, evaluating progress, and looking toward steps.

Curriculum Development : 

Curriculum Development It is defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing, and evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities, and interests of learners and nature of the society or community.

Curriculum Laboratory : 

Curriculum Laboratory Curriculum Laboratory is a place or workshop where curriculum materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners of curriculum.

Curriculum Laboratory : 

Curriculum Laboratory Resource Unit is a collection or suggested learning activities and materials organized around a given topic or area which a teacher might utilized in planning, developing, and evaluating a learning unit.

Curriculum Laboratory : 

Curriculum Laboratory Parts of Resource Unit Introduction or short explanation of the importance of the topic; Objective or anticipated outcomes; Content of the unit: Unit activities; Evaluation; and Bibliography

Course of the study : 

Course of the study It is an official guide prepared for use by the administrators, supervisors, and teachers of a particular school system as an aid to teaching a given subject or areas of study for a given level or grade, combinations of grades or other designated class or group of learners.

Course of the study : 

Course of the study It is usually includes the following: Aims of the course; the expected outcomes; the scope and nature of materials to be studied; Suitable instructional aids;

Course of the study : 

Course of the study Textbooks; Supplementary activities; Teaching methods; and Techniques of evaluation of achievements.

Two schools of thought predominated throughout the history of curriculum development; : 

Two schools of thought predominated throughout the history of curriculum development; The essentialist school The progressive school

The essentialist school : 

The essentialist school It considers the curriculum as something rigid consisting of discipline subjects. It considers all learners as much as the same and it aims to fit the learner into the existing social order and thereby maintain the status quo., Its major motivation is discipline and considers freedom as an outcome and not means of education.

The essentialist school : 

The essentialist school Its approach is authoritative and the teacher’s role is to assign lessons and recite recitations. It is book-centered and the methods recommended are memory work, mastery of facts and skills, and development of abstract intelligence. It has no interest in social action and life activities. Its measurement of outcomes is standard tests based on subject matter mastery

The progressive school : 

The progressive school It conceives of the curriculum as something flexible based on areas of interest. It is learner-centered, having in mind that no two persons are alike. Its factor of motivation is individual achievement believing that persons are naturally good. The role of the teacher is to stimulate direct learning process.

The progressive school : 

The progressive school It uses a life experience approach to fit the student for future social action. Constant revision of aims and experimental techniques of learning and teaching are imperative in curriculum development in order to create independent thinking, initiative, self-reliance, individuality, self-expression and activity in the learner. Its measurements outcome is now devices taking into consideration subject matter and personality values.

Slide 21: 

Curriculum Development in the Philippines

The Pre-Spanish Curriculum : 

The Pre-Spanish Curriculum The Filipinos possessed a culture of their own. They had contacts with other foreign peoples from Arabia, India, China, Indo-China and Borneo.

The Pre-Spanish Curriculum : 

The Pre-Spanish Curriculum “The inhabitants were a civilized people, possessing their systems of writing, laws and moral standards in a well-organized system of government. As shown in the rule of the barangay, their code of laws-the Code of Kalantiao and Maragtas-their belief in the Bathala, and the solidarity of the family were obedience and respect had been practiced.

The Spanish-devised Curriculum : 

The Spanish-devised Curriculum The Spanish missionaries aim to control of the Filipinos, body and soul. The curriculum then consisted of the three R’s- reading, writing and religion to attain goals were the acceptance of Catholicism and the acceptance of Spanish rule. The schools were parochial or convent schools. The main reading materials were the cartilla, the caton and the catecismo. The method of instructions was mainly individual memorization.

The Curriculum During the Commonwealth : 

The Curriculum During the Commonwealth The period of the Commonwealth (1935-1946) may be considered as the period of expansion and reform in the Philippine curriculum. The educational leaders expanded the curriculum by introducing course in farming, domestic science, etc. Commonwealth Act 586, also known as Educational Act of 1940, reorganized the elementary school system. This measured ushered the beginning of the decline of the efficiency of elementary education

The Japanese-devised Curriculum : 

The Japanese-devised Curriculum They devised the curriculum for the Filipino to suit their vested interest. They introduced many changes in the curriculum by including Nippongo and abolishing English as a medium of instruction and as a subject. All textbooks were censored and revised. It causes a blackout in Philippines education and impeded the educational progress of the Filipinos

The Liberation Period : 

The Liberation Period In 1945, during the liberation period, steps were taken to improve the curriculum existing before the war. Some steps taken were to restore Grade VII, to abolish the double-single session and most especially, to adopt the modern trends in education taken from the United States. The school curriculum remained basically the same as before and was still subject-centered.

The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic : 

The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic Great experiments in the community school idea and the use vernacular in the first two grades of the primary schools as the medium of instruction were some of them. An experiment worth mentioning that led to a change in the Philippine educational philosophy was that of school and community collaboration pioneered by Jose V. Aguilar.

The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic : 

The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic It is a source of gratification also to note that our schools are increasingly using instructional materials that are Philippine-oriented. This policy been formulated by our educational leaders, the most recent example of which being Department Memorandum No. 30, 1966.

The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic : 

The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic This particular memorandum sets the order of priority in the purchase of books for use in our schools as follows: a. Books which are contributions to Philippine Literature. b. Books on character education and other library materials. c. Library equipment and permanent features.

Community in The New Society : 

Community in The New Society “To guarantee that the educational system would be relevant and responsive to the challenges and requirements of national, provincial and local development.” President Ferdinand Marcos pursuant to Proclamation No. 1081 issued last Sept. 29, 1972, Decree No. 6 known as the Educational Development Decree of 1972, to take effect immediately.

Community in The New Society : 

Community in The New Society To advance its objectives, the Educational Development Decree has formulated a ten-year program based on a number of principle, among them: improvement of curricular programs and quality of instruction at all levels by upgrading physical facilities; adopting cost-saving instructional technology and training and retaining of teachers and administrators; upgrading of academic standards through accreditation schemes, admissions testing and guidance counseling; and democratization of access to education by financial assistance to poor but deserving students, skills training programs for out of school youth and a continuing educational program for illiterate adults.

Community in The New Society : 

Community in The New Society The emphasis of the New Society is on moral values, relevance, proper methods of teaching, retraining of teachers, vocational and technical education, bilingualism, national consciousness and cultural values.

Community in The New Society : 

Community in The New Society The curricular redirection of the New Society: 1. Should be redirected on development of moral virtues 2. As a means of integrating education and life 3. Should reflect the urgent need and problems facing the country today 4. Should be viewed in terms of learning to be acquired 5. All teaching shall seek to develop comprehensive under- standing of all subjects 6. Co-curricular youth programs shall be restructured and enriched 7. Non-formal education shall be recognized