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OF PHARMACY SUBMITTED BY: NAME - ADITYA SHARMA CLASS - B. PHARMA 3rd YEAR BATCH - 2007 ROLL No. - 02 11/16/2009 1 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA JAIPUR Slide 2: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 2 CONTENTS: PACKAGING FUNCTIONS OF PACKAGING TYPES OF PACKAGING COMPONENTS OF PACKAGING AEROSOL PACKAGING CONTAINER & CLOSURES PACKAGE TESTING REFERENCES Slide 3: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 3 PACKAGING Packaging has been defined as the means economically providing :- Presentation Identification Protection Convenience Containment during storage Slide 4: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 4 TYPES OF PACKAGING: SOLID PRODUCTS 2. SEMI-SOLID PRODUCT LIQUID PRODUCTS UNIT PACKS CHILD RESISTANCE PACKAGING 6. TEMPER RESISTANCE PACKAGING Slide 5: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 5 1. SOLID PRODUCTS: Solid dosages form such as tablets and capsules are by far the most commonly used today. Traditionally they have been packed in bottles, originally made from glass but latterly from various plastics. The walls of the container are usually amber or completely opaque to minimize the possibility of photo degradation. Powder or granules have a variety of role when used as a final dosage form. They usually packed as single dosages in flexible sachets. Slide 6: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 6 2. SEMI-SOLID PRODUCT The relevant characteristics of these products for packaging purpose are that they are often too viscous to flow but contain a sufficient amount of water to be classified as “wet ” products. Semi solid product include creams, emulsions, gels or ointments. Flexible tubes are frequently used to contain semi solids. These can be made from aluminium or plastic such as polyethylene. Slide 7: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 7 3. LIQUID PRODUCTS Traditionally glass has been the material of choice for the packaging of liquid but a variety of plastics is now widely used providing they have little or no permeability to the liquid Slide 8: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 8 UNIT PACKS: Unit packs in which individual dosage are separated from each other are popular for many type of dosage form. Slide 9: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 9 CHILD RESISTANCE PACKAGING: Child resistance container work on one of two principle- Certain degree of strength will be needed to open the product. High degree of manual coordination is required Slide 10: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 10 TAMPER RESISTANCE PACKAGING: Tamper resistance can be conferred on a pack by using a roll on closure which has a perforated collar Which grips on to a lip on the bottle neck & these perforation must be broken before the cap can be unscrewed. Slide 11: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 11 COMPONENTS OF PACKAGING: GLASS METALS RUBBERS PLASTICS FIBROUS MATERIALS FOIL, FILMS &LAMINATES Slide 12: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 12 GLASS: Glass is composed of sand, soda ash, limestone,& cullet. Si, Al, B, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn & Ba are generally used into preparation of glass ADVANTAGE: They are transparent. They have good protection power. They can be easily labelled. DISADVANTAGE: Glass is fragile so easily broken. Release alkali to aqueous prerparation. Slide 13: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 13 TYPE OF GLASS: COLOURED GLASS OR AMBER GLASS SULPHURED GLASS BOROSILICATE GLASS TREATED SODALIME GLASS REGULAR SODALIME GLASS GENERAL PURPOSE SODALIME GLASS Slide 14: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 14 PLASTICS: These are synthetic polymers of high molecular weight. These containers are made from following polymers : POLYETHYLENE POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POLYSTYRENE NYLON POLYCARBONATE Slide 15: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 15 METALS: The thickest aluminium is used for rigid containers. Eg. Aerosol cans Intermediate thickness is steel important but the pack should be capable of being deformed under a reasonable force. Eg. Collapsible tube for semisolid preparations. Thinnest aluminium is used in flexible foils. Slide 16: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 16 RUBBERS: Rubbers are excellent material for forming seals so they are used almost exclusively to form closures such as bungs for vials or in similar application such as gasket in aerosol can These are consist of Two types: NATURAL SYNTHETIC Slide 17: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 17 FIBROUS MATERIALS: Paper & board are used in various form for packaging of pharmaceutical products. They are used for preparing outer container such as cartons, boxes, envelopes. Slide 18: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 18 FOIL, FILMS & LAMINATES FOILS: The most important metal for this application is aluminium. FILMS Cellophane is an attractive transparent film which can be coloured and printed upon so it useful as outer wrap. LAMINATES Laminates are used to combine the properties of individual foil and films and strictly are made by bonding the layer with adhesive. Slide 19: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 19 AEROSOL PACKGING Aerosol may be defined as disperse phase system in which very fine solid particles or liquid droplets get dispersed in the gas which act as continuous phase. ADVANTAGE: Absence of air prevents oxidation of the product The application of medicaments is easier DISADVANTAGE: Aerosols are costly preparation Some of the propellants are very toxic Slide 20: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 20 PARTS OF AEROSOL CONTAINER CONTAINER VALVE ACTUATOR DIP TUBE Slide 21: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 21 Slide 22: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 22 CONTAINER AND CLOSURE CONTAINER: Pharmaceutical containers has been defined as a device that holds the drugs or it may or may not be indirect contact with the pharmaceutical preparation. TYPES OF CONTAINERS WELL CLOSED CONTAINER SINGLE DOSE CONTAINER MULTI DOSE CONTAINER LIGHT RESISTANCE CONTAINER AIR TIGHT CONTAINER AEROSOL CONTAINER Slide 23: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 23 CLOSURE: An effective closure must prevent the contents from escaping & allow no substance to the container. TYPE OF CLOSURE: PLUG TYPE CROWN TYPE PUSH FIT TYPE SCREW TYPE Slide 24: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 24 Slide 25: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 25 COMMON TYPE OF PACKAGING BLISTER PACKAGING STRIP PACKAGING BUBBLE PACKAGING Slide 26: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 26 Slide 27: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 27 PACKAGE TESTING These are divided into Two groups:- TESTING MATERIALS TESTING PACKAGES CHEMICAL MECHANICAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL MECHANICAL Slide 28: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 28 REFERENCES: Aulton Michael E., “Aulton’s Pharmaceutics The Design and Manufacture of Medicines”, Edited by Churchill Livingstone Elsevier limited, 3rd edition,2007,pp 626-639. Lachman leon, Lieberman Herbert A., Kanig Joseph L., “The theory & practice of industrial pharmacy” published by Varghese publishing house, bombay, 3rd edition,1991,pp 711-732. Cooper and Gunn’s, “Tutorial pharmacy”, edited by S.J.Carter,Publishing by CBS publisher &distributors, Delhi, 6th edition, 2005,pp 131-141. Mehta R.M., “Pharmaceutics- 1”Published by vallabh prakashan, delhi, 2nd edition, pp 73-93. http://www.ipapharma.org/events/Stability/JBhat.pdf (15/11/09) Slide 29: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 29 THANK YOU Slide 30: 11/16/2009 PRESENTED BY ADITYA SHARMA 30 QUERIES?????????? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.