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Chapter 16 : 

Chapter 16 Organizational Culture

Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–2 Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture Institutionalization When an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, becomes valued for itself, and acquires immortality.

What Is Organizational Culture? : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–3 What Is Organizational Culture? Characteristics: Innovation and risk taking Attention to detail Outcome orientation People orientation Team orientation Aggressiveness Stability Organizational Culture A common perception held by the organization’s members; a system of shared meaning.

Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–4 Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Dominant Culture Expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members. Subcultures Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation.

Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? (cont’d) : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–5 Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? (cont’d) Core Values The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization. Strong Culture A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared.

What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d) : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–6 What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d) Culture Versus Formalization A strong culture increases behavioral consistency and can act as a substitute for formalization. Organizational Culture Versus National Culture National culture has a greater impact on employees than does their organization’s culture. Nationals selected to work for foreign companies may be atypical of the local/native population.

What Do Cultures Do? : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–7 What Do Cultures Do? Culture’s Functions: Defines the boundary between one organization and others. Conveys a sense of identity for its members. Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest. Enhances the stability of the social system. Serves as a sense-making and control mechanism for fitting employees in the organization.

What Do Cultures Do? : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–8 What Do Cultures Do? Culture as a Liability: Barrier to change. Barrier to diversity Barrier to acquisitions and mergers

How Culture Begins : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–9 How Culture Begins Founders hire and keep only employees who think and feel the same way they do. Founders indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling. The founders’ own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs, values, and assumptions.

Keeping Culture Alive : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–10 Keeping Culture Alive Selection Concern with how well the candidates will fit into the organization. Provides information to candidates about the organization. Top Management Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization. Socialization The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.

Stages in the Socialization Process : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–11 Stages in the Socialization Process Prearrival Stage The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization. Metamorphosis Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization. Encounter Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.

How Employees Learn Culture : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–12 How Employees Learn Culture Stories Rituals Material Symbols Language

Creating An Ethical Organizational Culture : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–13 Creating An Ethical Organizational Culture Characteristics of Organizations that Develop High Ethical Standards High tolerance for risk Low to moderate in aggressiveness Focus on means as well as outcomes Managerial Practices Promoting an Ethical Culture Being a visible role model. Communicating ethical expectations. Providing ethical training. Rewarding ethical acts and punishing unethical ones. Providing protective mechanisms.

Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–14 Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture Key Variables Shaping Customer-Responsive Cultures The types of employees hired by the organization. Low formalization: the freedom to meet customer service requirements. Empowering employees with decision-making discretion to please the customer. Good listening skills to understand customer messages. Role clarity that allows service employees to act as “boundary spanners.” Employees who engage in organizational citizenship behaviors.

Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–15 Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) Managerial Actions : Select new employees with personality and attitudes consistent with high service orientation. Train and socialize current employees to be more customer focused. Change organizational structure to give employees more control. Empower employees to make decision about their jobs.

Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–16 Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) Managerial Actions (cont’d) : Lead by conveying a customer-focused vision and demonstrating commitment to customers. Conduct performance appraisals based on customer-focused employee behaviors. Provide ongoing recognition for employees who make special efforts to please customers.

Spirituality and Organizational Culture : 

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–17 Spirituality and Organizational Culture Workplace Spirituality The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of the community. Characteristics: Strong sense of purpose Focus on individual development Trust and openness Employee empowerment Toleration of employee expression

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