Joint AIr Operations

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PowerPoint Presentation:

Joint Air Operations: JTMD Definition and Objectives The main objectives of joint theater missile defense (JTMD) are as follows: Joint Force Components Supporting Combatant Commanders Multinational Force TMD Capabilities ENSURE that the JFC has freedom to conduct joint operations REDUCE the probability of and/or minimize effects of missile damage DETECT and target theater missile systems PROTECT US-deployed and multinational forces and assets DEMONSTRATE US resolve to deter aggression JP 3-01.5, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE” 16

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Joint Air Operations: The Four Operational Elements OF TMD There are four operational elements that make up theater missile defense (TMD): Active Defense Protect by destroying in-flight defenses and airborne launch platforms Mutlitiered Defense Indepth and Active Electronic Warfare Passive Defense Measures to reduce vulnerability & minimize damage Deception Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Protection Electronic Warfare Attack Operations Offensive action by land, sea, air, space, and SOF Destruction, disruption, or neutralization of theater missile launch platforms and supporting C4 TMD C4I Timely and accurate data and systems to control operations Plan, monitor, direct, control, and report integrated systems of doctrine, organizational structures, and supporting intelligence JP 3-01.5, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE” 17

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Joint Air Operations: Types of Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses Operations There are three categories of Joint Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (J-SEAD): AOR/JOA Air Defense System Suppression …is conducted in support of joint operation or campaign objectives; it consists of AOR/JOA-wide operations conducted against specific enemy air defense systems. Opportune Suppression …is usually unplanned and includes aircrew self-defense and attack against targets of opportunity. The JFC or higher authority will establish the rules of engagement for opportune suppression. Localized Suppression …operations are normally confined to geographical areas associated with specific ground targets or friendly transit routes. This concept occurs throughout the AOR/JOA for all components. JP 3-01.4, “JTTP FOR JOINT SUPPRESSION OF ENEMY AIR DEFENSES (J-SEAD)” 18

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Joint Air Operations: Joint Suppression Measures During J-SEAD operations, suppression requirements vary according to mission objectives, system capabilities, and threat complexity. Destructive Means Bombs Air and Surface- to-Surface Missiles Air Scatterable Mines Artillery Disruptive Means Passive Means: Emission Control Camouflage Active Means: Electronic Attack JP 3-01.4, “JTTP FOR JOINT SUPPRESSION OF ENEMY AIR DEFENSES (J-SEAD)” 19

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Joint Air Operations: Joint Maritime Operations (AIR) Definition Joint maritime operations (JMO) - (AIR) - are employed to destroy or reduce to an acceptable level the enemy air, surface, and subsurface threat to friendly forces and to suppress enemy commerce, to gain and maintain local air superiority, and to support land-based operations as directed by the joint force commander. Joint Maritime Operations for Air Sea Control Maritime Power Projection Increase Joint Force Combat Effectiveness Enemy Warfighting Capabilities Destroy Degrade Neutralize JP 3-04, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT MARITIME OPERATIONS (AIR)” 20

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Joint Air Operations: Interdiction Definition and Objectives Interdiction is an action to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemy’s surface military potential before it can be used effectively against friendly forces. E N E M Y Diversion Disruption Delay Destruction Transportation & Supply Systems Installations & Facilities C4I C4I = Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence Lines of Communications Surface Forces Other Vital Resources and Infrastructure JP 3-03, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT INTERDICTION OPERATIONS” 21

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Joint Air Operations: Air Interdiction Air interdiction is interdiction conducted by means of air operations with the intent of destroying, neutralizing, or delaying the enemy’s military potential before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces. Air Interdiction Land-Based Air Forces Sea-Based Air Forces Missiles Bombs Submunitions Land/Sea Mines Sensors Enemy’s Military Potential Destroy Delay Neutralize JP 3-03, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT INTERDICTION OPERATIONS” 22 Electronic Warfare Systems

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Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Joint Force Air Component Commander Joint Air Operations: Synchronizing Maneuver and Interdiction Synchronization is defined as “the arrangement of military actions in time, space, and purpose to produce maximum relative combat power at a decisive place and time.” Interdiction and maneuver are complimentary operations that can, and should, be synchronized to create dilemmas for the enemy. Joint Force Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Component Commander Interdiction Maneuver Campaign Objectives JP 3-03, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT INTERDICTION OPERATIONS” 23 Joint Force Air Component Commander

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Land Forces Naval Forces Joint Air Operations: JFACC’s Role in Interdiction The JFACC, as the supported commander for the JFC’s overall air interdiction effort, develops theater/JOA-wide targeting priorities and proposes the apportionment recommendation to the JFC. Joint Force Commander Apportionment Recommendation Land Forces Naval Forces Interdiction Priorities JFACC JP 3-03, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT INTERDICTION OPERATIONS” 24

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Joint Air Operations: Effective Interdiction The following are the elements which are normally required to successfully prosecute interdiction operations: Successful Interdiction Operations Dimensional Superiority Synchronization with Surface Maneuver Sustained and Concentrated Pressure Appropriate Munitions / Assets Accurate and Timely Intelligence JP 3-03, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT INTERDICTION OPERATIONS” 25

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Joint Air Operations: Close Air Support Definition and Conditions Close air support (CAS) is defined as air action by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets which are in close proximity to friendly forces and which require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces. Close Air Support: Planning: Conditions: Focuses on ordered arrangement and maneuver of combat elements in order to achieve combat objectives. CAS, while a tactical operation, is linked to operational art through the air apportionment process Air superiority, suppression of enemy air defenses, target marking, favorable weather, prompt response, aircrews and terminal controller skill, appropriate ordnance, communications, and command and control Any place and time friendly combat forces are in close proximity to enemy forces. The requirement for detailed integration because of proximity, fires, or movement is determining factor JP 3-09.3, “JTTP FOR CLOSE AIR SUPPORT (CAS)” 26

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Joint Air Operations: Fixed-and Rotary-Wing Close Air Support Employment Close air support (CAS) can be employed with either fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft. The organizational structure, missions, and the characteristics of CAS-capable aircraft determine how CAS is employed. Rotary-Wing Platform Fixed-Wing Platform Responsiveness Situational Adaptability Range & Speed Ordnance Capacity Maneuver Force Commanders TASKING Mission-Type Orders SORTIES EXECUTION EXECUTION JP 3-09.3, “JTTP FOR CLOSE AIR SUPPORT (CAS)” 27

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Joint Air Operations: Theater Airlift Definition and Purpose Theater airlift consists of aircraft and ground assets, assigned to a combatant commander (other than USCINCTRANS) to provide common-user airlift in support of joint operations. The lowest practical level for assigning and operating common-user airlift forces is usually at the theater level. ADVANTAGES Speed, range, and easily modified cargo configuration Able to shift between missions and terminals Responsive communications link Able to depart, deliver, and return quickly DISADVANTAGES Dependence on ground equipment Larger and slower than most other combat and support aircraft Vulnerable to air and surface attacks Scarcity of theater airlift assets JP 3-17, “JTTP FOR THEATER AIRLIFT OPERATIONS” 28

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Joint Air Operations: Theater Airlift Categories Theater airlift operations are categorized in different ways for different purposes. Theater airlift is usually divided between channel and Special Assignment Airlift Missions (SAAMs). Mission Channel Missions SAAM Common-user service Fixed schedule and route structures Specific-user service Single aircraft to large formations Scheduling Recurrent Operations Surge Operations Scheduled flow Require low-threat environments Unscheduled flow Reduced vulnerability to attack Movement Planning Administrative Loaded Combat Loaded Maximum use of capacities Must be unloaded and sorted Loaded ready for immediate use Maximizes combat JP 3-17, “JTTP FOR THEATER AIRLIFT OPERATIONS” 29

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Joint Air Operations: Theater Airlift Tasks Deployment Administrative or combat movement of personnel, units, and materiel into or within an area of responsibility (AOR) or joint operations area before they engage in operations Employment Combat movement of units as an integral part of their operations Routine Sustainment Administrative air movement of materiel and personnel to reinforce or resupply forces already deployed and/or employed in operations Combat Sustainment Combat movement of supplies, materiel, and personnel to reinforce or resupply units already engaged in combat operations Redeployment Combat or administrative air movement of personnel, units, and materiel from deployed positions within an AOR or JOA Force Extraction Combat air movement of personnel, units, and materiel from positions in the immediate vicinity of enemy forces JP 3-17, “JTTP FOR THEATER AIRLIFT OPERATIONS” 30

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Joint Air Operations: Command & Control of Airlift Forces The joint air operations center (JAOC) is the organization through which the JFACC controls joint air operations, including theater airlift. Within the JAOC, an airlift coordination cell (ALCC) plans, coordinates, and manages the execution of theater airlift operations. JFACC JAOC ALCC Airlift Plans Branch Airlift Operations Branch Airlift Support Branch JP 3-17, “JTTP FOR THEATER AIRLIFT OPERATIONS” 31

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Joint Air Operations: JFC Responsibilities for CSAR JFCs have primary authority and responsibility for CSAR in support of US forces within their AORs/JOAs, including civilian personnel. When planning, JFCs should ensure that host-nation laws, policies, regulations, and capabilities are taken into consideration. Joint Force Commander Joint Force Component Commanders Joint Search and Rescue Center Coordinate Execute Plan Joint Search and Rescue CSAR SAR Control of Combat Search & Rescue Forces Component Support Adjacent Joint Force Commanders Establish Rescue Coordination Center Component Commanders Fulfill CSAR Responsibilities JP 3-50.2, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT COMBAT SEARCH AND RESCUE” 32

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Joint Air Operations: Combat Search and Rescue Recovery Methods Joint CSAR forces may employ any one of a variety of procedures to recover isolated personnel. The specific method of recovery employed will be dictated by the situation. CSAR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT UNCONTESTED ENVIRONMENT Combat Search & Rescue Task Force Unconventional Assisted Recovery Through an E & R Network Accurate Location of Isolated Personnel Accurate Location of Isolated Personnel Conventional Search & Rescue Procedures Isolated personnel must have knowledge of rescue procedures Single Unit Employs single type of vehicle to penetrate hostile territory CSARTF May be used where resources and enemy activity allow Low-Visibility Options Place isolated personnel with highly trained unit ASAP Evasion & Recovery Employ special teams and SOF to recover isolated personnel JP 3-50.2, “DOCTRINE FOR JOINT COMBAT SEARCH AND RESCUE” 33

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Joint Air Operations: Conclusion Unity of Effort Decentralized Execution Centralized Planning SUCCESS SUCCESS SUCCESS 34