Lithosphere Bridget Cyntha Keri

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LithosphereComposition Of Earth : 

LithosphereComposition Of Earth By: Bridget Helms Cynthia Munoz Keri Bebault

What is a mineral?? : 

What is a mineral?? A mineral is naturally occurring, inorganic solid with specific chemical composition and a definite crystalline structure.

How Minerals Form : 

How Minerals Form There are 2 ways that minerals can form. Minerals can form when water that has dissolved elements evaporates and the atoms bond to form minerals. The other way is when magma cools and the atoms bond into mineral crystals.

Igneous Rocks : 

Igneous Rocks Igneous Rocks form above, below, or on Earth’s surface. There are two types of igneous rocks, intrusive and extrusive.

Intrusive Igneous Rocks : 

Intrusive Igneous Rocks Intrusive rocks are formed below Earth’s surface when magma slowly cools underground. Because it takes longer for the magma to cool, the mineral crystals are large enough to see without a microscope.

Extrusive Igneous Rocks : 

Extrusive Igneous Rocks Extrusive igneous rocks are formed on or above Earth’s surface.


THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKTS Some different types of sedimentary rocks are Caustic Organic and chemical



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For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded--broken down and worn awayby wind and water. These little bits of our earth are washed downstream where they settle to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each. These layers are pressed down more and more through time, until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock

How Rocks Melt and Crystallize : 

How Rocks Melt and Crystallize Melting is caused by one or more of three processes: increase in temperature, decrease in pressure, or change in composition.

Textural Terms For Rocks : 

Textural Terms For Rocks

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Porphyritic Texture: Composed of at least two minerals having a large difference in grain size. Large Grains: Phenocrysts. Fine Grains: Either matrix or groundmass.

Types and Textures of Igneous Rocks : 

Types and Textures of Igneous Rocks Phaneritic Texture: Comprised of large crystals that are visible with or without a microscope. The crystals are generally ½ mm to several cm in size. Texture forms by slow cooling of magma deep underground in the plutonic environment.

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Aphanitic Texture: Consists of small crystals that cannot be seen by the eye or with a small lens. Crystals are generally less than ½ mm in size. Texture results from rapid cooling in volcanic or hypabyssal environments.

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Glassy Texture: Non-crystalline (no mineral grains.) Texture results from cooling so fast that minerals do not have a chance to crystallize. May occur when magma or lava comes into quick contact with much cooler materials near the Earth’s surface.

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Vesicular Texture: Vesicles (holes, pores, or cavities) within the igneous rock. Vesicles are the result of gas expansion; this often occurs during volcanic eruptions. Pumice and Scoria are two common types of rocks with vesicular texture.

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Fragmental Texture: Comprised of numerous grains or fragments welded together by the heat of a volcanic eruption. Pyroclastic rocks blown into the atmosphere during violent volcanic eruptions. Feels grainy like sandpaper and glass is embedded in the rock.

Effects of Cooling Rates on the Grain Size of Igneous Rocks : 

Effects of Cooling Rates on the Grain Size of Igneous Rocks If a rock cools slowly, there is time for large crystals to form and grow. Larger cry If a rock cools quickly, it will have smaller crystals.

What Are Igneous Rocks Used For? : 

What Are Igneous Rocks Used For? Granite is used for long lasting monuments and trim and decoration on buildings. Pumice is used as decorative landscape stones. Crystalline Igneous rocks are often made into jewelry.

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks : 

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks Wind, water, air, gravity or ice deposits particles of sediment. Sediment deposition builds up. Sedimentary rocks are layed down in beds called layers or strata.

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