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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION AND GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION diffusion under high pressure across filtrating membrane filtrating membrane is made up of podocyte of Bowman’s capsule basement membrane of podocyte & endothelium of glomerulus endothelium of glomerulus

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION filtrate is composed of plasma without proteins 20 % of the plasma that is flowing through the Bowman’s capsule – 3 liters filtrate formed 125 ml per minute 180 liter per day the fraction of the renal plasma flow that is filtered Filtration fraction = GFR/Renal plasma flow 0.2

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8 nm (80 A˚) Dia PORES DIA OF PLASMA PROTEIN ALBUMIN – 6 nm GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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Factors That Can Decrease the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Physical Determinants* Physiologic/Pathophysiologic Causes ↓ Kf → ↓ GFR Renal disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension ↑ PB → ↓ GFR Urinary tract obstruction (e.g., kidney stones, Kinking) ↑ πG → ↓ GFR ↓ Renal blood flow, increased plasma proteins ↓ PG → ↓ GFR ↓ AP → ↓ PG ↓Arterial pressure (has only small effect due to autoregulation) ↓ RE → ↓ PG ↓ Angiotensin II (drugs that block angiotensin II formation) ↑ RA → ↓ PG ↑ Sympathetic activity, vasoconstrictor hormones (e.g., norepinephrine, endothelin) GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION THE FRACTION OF THE RENAL PLASMA FLOW THAT IS FILTERED Substance Molecular Weight Filterability Water 18 1.0 Sodium 23 1.0 Glucose 180 1.0 Inulin 5,500 1.0 Myoglobin 17,000 75 Albumin 69,000 0.005

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION Filtration pressure Filtration co-efficient = GFR/filtration pressure GFR = Kf \ Net filtration pressure GFR = Kf \ (PG – PB – pG + pB)

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION Hormone or Autacoid Effect on GFR Norepinephrine ↓ Epinephrine ↓ Endothelin ↓ Angiotensin II ↔ (prevents ↓) Endothelial-derived nitric oxide ↑ Prostaglandins ↑

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION Auto regulation

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION Auto regulation Tubulo – glomerular feedback mechanism

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION Auto regulation Tubulo – glomerular feedback mechanism

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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GLOMERULAR FILTRATION

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