Commissioning

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Introduction to Process Plant Start-up and Commissioning : 

Introduction to Process Plant Start-up and Commissioning

Plant Start-up and Commissioning : 

Plant Start-up and Commissioning Plant commissioning is the first of many start-ups Potentially hazardous: ability to operate not proven Many unknown factors First startup & subsequent shutdowns and startups Excellent experience and expertise building for operators and maintenance personnel.

Start-up and Commissioning apply to : 

Start-up and Commissioning apply to Entire facilities in Greenfield projects Major expansions or additions to existing plants Re-commissioning of plants and equipment; Individual items of plant, eg Boilers Instrument air compressors etc

Delays in Startup & Commissioning expensive! : 

Delays in Startup & Commissioning expensive! slow start-ups reduce the Return on Investment delayed revenue stream Increased cost of delivery Financial viability ~20-25% of construction time (good planning) Causes of delays: 75% due to equipment failure 20% from inadequate equipment 5% from process failure

Details vary depending on plant butprocedure remains the same : 

Details vary depending on plant butprocedure remains the same prepare, plan and execute startup commissioning management Preparation of specific plant procedures Management of risks Safety & environmental compliance

Construction & CommissioningHow we would like it ….. : 

Construction & CommissioningHow we would like it ….. Construction Pre-commissioning, Inspection and Operational Testing Start up and Performance testing Post commissioning Mechanical completion Provisional acceptance Acceptance

Construction and CommissioningHow it happens ….. : 

Construction and CommissioningHow it happens ….. Construction Pre-commissioning, Inspection and Operational Testing Start up and Performance testing Post commissioning Mechanical completion Progressive provisional acceptance Progressive acceptance

Commissioning in practice : 

Commissioning in practice Progressive mechanical completion and concurrent commissioning creates challenges: Coordination and planning Safety and risk Isolation Testing Integration into operating plant

From construction to commissioning : 

From construction to commissioning what constitutes mechanical completion? on completion, start-up can officially commence problems when part of a plant are commissioned while construction not yet finished.

The Commissioning ProcessKey Stages : 

The Commissioning ProcessKey Stages Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Performance and Acceptance testing Start Up & Initial Operation Post Commissioning Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing

The Commissioning Process Detail - 1 : 

The Commissioning Process Detail - 1 Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Performance and Acceptance testing Start Up & Initial Operation Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Appointment of Commissioning Manager or Lead Commissioning Engineer; Appointment of Commissioning Team Members and Support Staff; Training; Information Compilation; Safety and Risk Assessment; Commissioning Strategy Development; Procedures and Checklist Development; Detailed Plan and Budget Preparation; Post Commissioning

The Commissioning Process Detail - 2 : 

The Commissioning Process Detail - 2 Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Performance and Acceptance testing Start Up & Initial Operation Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Inspection Pressure testing Cleaning and Flushing Machinery checkout Post Commissioning

The Commissioning Process Detail - 3 : 

The Commissioning Process Detail - 3 Preparation and planning Performance and Acceptance testing Start Up & Initial Operation Steam and other utilities introduced; Dry running trials; Hot running trials; Safe-fluid dynamic testing; Solvent dynamic testing; Process fluid tests. Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Post Commissioning

The Commissioning Process Detail - 4 : 

The Commissioning Process Detail - 4 Preparation and planning Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning Introduction of process fluid Start-up and initial operation Trouble-shooting and problem correction. Plant taken to full operations. Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation

The Commissioning Process Detail - 5 : 

The Commissioning Process Detail - 5 Preparation and planning Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning Performance trails; Formal Acceptance test Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation

The Commissioning Process Detail - 6 : 

The Commissioning Process Detail - 6 Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning From plant on-stream to settled down and in regular production; Adjustments, modifications and fault correction; Completion of outstanding punchlist items

What makes commissioning & start-up difficult ... : 

What makes commissioning & start-up difficult ... planning, coordination and management; massive coordination of construction, contractors, vendors, commissioning team, operations and maintenance – all working to aggressive timelines. the commissioning team, operations and maintenance must become familiar with extensive range of equipment and technology, very quickly.

The Commissioning Process : 

The Commissioning Process Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Performance and Acceptance testing Start Up & Initial Operation Post Commissioning Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Organisation and roles; Information Management; Procedure development Safety and risk management; Permit systems Job safety analysis Planning and control; Budgeting and cost control; Commissioning strategy. Management Issues Technical Issues Plant preparation and isolation; Utilities and Electrical System Commissioning Equipment Specific Commissioning Issues Machinery/ Rotating Equipment Vessels, Towers and pipe work etc. Removal of hazardous substances and purging Instrumentation commissioning

Task force responsibilitiesDuring design stage : 

Task force responsibilitiesDuring design stage Review design for safety and operability Carry out HAZOP and other safety studies operating procedures & maintenance manuals Familiarization with the plant Check compliance with design, intent and standards Documentation for commissioning, operation & training; Arrange modifications required Recruitment, training of operations & maintenance personnel.

Typical Operating Instruction Manual : 

Typical Operating Instruction Manual The Process Conditioning and Special Equipment Starting Procedures Shutdown Procedures

Maintenance Responsibilities : 

Maintenance Responsibilities Publish work and safety procedures; Specify maintenance activities Select and purchase maintenance supplies and spare parts; Negotiate with vendors and contractors; Keep up maintenance records; Make detailed designs of any changes and additions made during commissioning; Storage of spare parts and supplies; Schedule routine daily work and that for planned shutdowns.

Safety in Maintenance - 1 : 

Safety in Maintenance - 1 Detailed procedures for maintenance work and work to be done when executing the commissioning procedure Need to cover each major piece of equipment & system take into account all possible hazards Include: Instructions for isolating (blinding, draining, venting, purging) process and utility systems; Locking out electrical systems Instructions covering atmospheric testing, type of test and permissible limits of contaminants.

Safety in Maintenance - 2 : 

Safety in Maintenance - 2 Definition of type of permit required to carry out work Type of equipment required for maintenance Description of personal protection equipment required Instructions regarding emergency equipment Instructions on potential hazards Emergency procedures

Spare Parts and Maintenance Minimum Inventories for Commissioning and Start-up : 

Spare Parts and Maintenance Minimum Inventories for Commissioning and Start-up manufacturer’s recommended spare parts for motive equipment - avoid duplication gaskets for vessels and heat exchangers. Pipe fittings, valves and gaskets (approx. 5% of total of each in the plant should be sufficient) Instrument air tubing, plus adequate fittings

Spare Parts and Maintenance - 2Minimum Inventories for Commissioning and Start-up : 

Spare Parts and Maintenance - 2Minimum Inventories for Commissioning and Start-up Pressure gauges of appropriate ranges Thermometers and any special instrument parts Rupture disks Pipe insulation materials including jacketing Lubrication oils and greases Spare parts for electronic & analytical equipment.

Process Plant Machinery Commissioning Failure Problems in decreasing order of problem frequency : 

Process Plant Machinery Commissioning Failure Problems in decreasing order of problem frequency 1. Centrifugal compressors 2. Steam turbines 3. Large gear speed increaser units 4. Electric motors in size categories above 1000 HP 5. Reciprocating compressors 6. Gas turbines 7. Gas expanders

Commissioning Team Information Requirements : 

Commissioning Team Information Requirements Project design file Process file Engineering data file Plant layout file Operating instructions Analytical procedures Log sheets and calculation procedures.

Commissioning Documentation : 

Commissioning Documentation Technical manual giving process technology and equipment Standard operating procedures giving details of each system Safety valve and rupture disk manual, listing the design basis for each safety device, and giving the procedure for taking it out of service Training manual detailing the program for new personnel Safety manual setting policies and procedures Emergency response manual, tabulating emergency procedures and responses to adverse conditions (e.g. weather) Maintenance procedures specific to the new plant

Commissioning and Start Up Budget Cost Estimation : 

Commissioning and Start Up Budget Cost Estimation

Startup Budgets : 

Startup Budgets Three categories of cost; Costs for normal startup equipment, materials and personnel; Costs for unexpected changes and additions; Costs for mechanical equipment breakdowns.

Estimating plant startup & commissioning : 

Estimating plant startup & commissioning Allow from 5-15% of overall capital cost of the project for startup and commissioning Empirical rules for estimating both startup time and startup costs, suitable for initial project budget

Estimate Startup CostsCost = A(0.10 + B + C + D +NE) : 

Estimate Startup CostsCost = A(0.10 + B + C + D +NE) A = Direct fixed capital cost of project; B = Process factor 0.05 for radically new process 0.02 for relatively new -0.02 for familiar process C = Equipment factor 0.07 for radically new 0.03 for relatively new -0.03 for familiar equipment D = Labour factor 0.04 for labour in very short supply 0.02 for labour somewhat scarce -0.01 for surplus labour N = Number of process units involved E = Dependency factor 0.04 for interdependent process units 0.02 for moderately dependent -0.02 for independent plants.

Estimate Startup TimeTime = a(0.15 + b + c + d +Ne) : 

Estimate Startup TimeTime = a(0.15 + b + c + d +Ne) a = Construction Time b = Process factor 0.15 for radically new process 0.05 for relatively new -0.01 for familiar process c = Equipment factor 0.15 for radically new 0.08 for very new 0.05 for relatively new -0.01 for familiar equipment D = Labour factor 0.15 for labour in very short supply 0.05 for labour somewhat scarce -0.01 for surplus labour N = Number of process units involved E = Dependency factor 0.25 for interdependent process units 0.10 for moderately dependent -0.02 for independent plants.

Startup Costs and Time Example : 

Startup Costs and Time Example A Crude Stabilisation Plan is currently under construction. Its capital cost is $100 Million and it is expected to take 8 months to complete; Because of its remote location it will be difficult to attract skilled labour for the commissioning; The technology is all familiar and proven technology; Once operational the plant will be dependent on the existing Gas Processing facility for smooth operation, but it has been designed to allow it to be isolated from the gas side given that it is a single operating unit; Estimate the cost and time to commission this unit.

Estimate Startup Costs & Time : 

Estimate Startup Costs & Time Startup Costs Cost = 100 (0.10 -0.02 -0.03 + 0.04 +1*0.02) = 100 * 0.11 = $11 Million Startup Time Time = 8(0.15 -0.01-0.01+ 0.15+1*0.1) = 8 * 0.38 = 3 Months