Irony vs. Sarcasm vs. Litotes

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By: bajananegada (128 month(s) ago)

loved this presentation. Excellent explanation. Thank you

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Slide 1: 

By: Spencer Cantor & Kim Griffin September 16, 2009 4th Period Irony Vs. Sarcasm Vs. Litotes

Irony : 

Irony From Greek word eirōneía meaning hypocrisy or feigned ignorance. The use of words to express something different from the opposite to their literal meaning. 3 Types Dramatic Situational Verbal

Dramatic Irony : 

Dramatic Irony Also called Theater irony Irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play

Examples : 

Examples R&J: When Romeo finds Juliet in a deep sleep, he thinks she is dead so he kills himself. After Juliet awakens, she sees that Romeo is dead, so she stabs herself. In a horror movie, dramatic irony is used because the audience knows the killer is there, but the character does not.

Situational Irony : 

Situational Irony The difference between what is expected to happen and what actually does. Also called irony of situation Irony of situation is usually humorous.

Example : 

Example The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge Water, water, every where,And all the boards did shrink ; Water, water, every where, Nor any drop to drink Ironic because there is water but it cannot be drank.

Example : 

Example The Accidental Tourist by Anne Tyler  "Seated in a stenographer's chair, tapping away at a typewriter that had served him through four years of college, he wrote a series of guidebooks for people forced to travel on business." The writer hated travel.

Verbal Irony : 

Verbal Irony A contradiction of expectation between what is said and what is meant Simplest form of irony. Also called rhetorical irony Produced intentionally by the speaker

Example : 

Example Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare "Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;And Brutus is an honorable man". Mark Antony really means that Brutus is dishonorable.

Sarcasm : 

Sarcasm A mocking or ironic language used to convey insults Can be hurtful From Greek word sarkasmos meaning "to bite the lips in rage“ Can be a form of irony Used in many languages, not just English

Pitch : 

Pitch Pitch of voice changes when being sarcastic; emphasize words Sincerity=pitch high Sarcastic=pitch low Ex: Saying thanks in a nasal tone would indicate sarcasm.

Examples : 

Examples Player misses the ball and you respond with "nice catch”

Litotes : 

Litotes Certain statement is expressed by denying its opposite Word comes from Greek litos meaning plain, meagre’. Understatement   Expressed by the negative opposition

Examples : 

Examples Einstein is not a bad mathematician Expressed by the negative opposition Meaning: Einstein is a good mathematician.

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