Origin of life & Evolution


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Zero Error workshop of Biology onOrigin of Life & Evolution : 

Zero Error workshop of Biology onOrigin of Life & Evolution By Prof. A K MUDGAL GOVT. COLLEGE ARON M.P - INDIA

Origin of Life : 

Origin of Life Biogeny vs Cenogeny Biopoiesis by Pirie Oldest rock 4.3 b yrs 3.9 b yrs rock ( carbonates) Most Primitive cell: Cynobacteria 3.2 b yrs

Theories : 

Theories Special Creation Spontaneous creation Biogenesis Cosmozoic( Richter)

Origin of Earth : 

Origin of Earth Big-bang theory 15 b yrs Thermonuclear explosion 4.5 b yrs solar system was created Nebula Central part : sun, Periphery planets

Origin of earth : 

Origin of earth Kant 1753 Ylem: condensed mass of cosmic matter

Atmosphere of Primitive Earth : 

Atmosphere of Primitive Earth 4.5 – 5 b yrs ago Heavy elements in core : Fe. Ni Surface: H N C in gaseous form No free Oxygen & no oxidation Atms was reducing. Surface temp 5000-6000 c No ozone, uv present

Bio-kinetic Zone : 

Bio-kinetic Zone Taq Chemical finger printing

Chemo -synthetic theory : 

Chemo -synthetic theory Original idea by Haeckel A.I Oparin 1923, JBS Haldane 1928 4.2 b yrs back life originated from inanimate matter

Chemogeny : 

Chemogeny 4 b yrs <100 c temp N was in the form of ammonia C was in the form of methane Oxygen in the form of H2O No free oxygen

Formation of organic compounds : 

Formation of organic compounds Temp 1000 c CH +CH  HC CH CH2 +CH2  H2C CH2 HC CH +H2O  CH3CHO

Formation of complex molecules : 

Formation of complex molecules Fatty acids + Glycerol HC+NH3+H2O+ energy  Amino acid Hot dilute soup of Haldane Mud instead of ocean

Sources of energy : 

Sources of energy UV Sun Ionizing radiations Electric charge Heat

Formation of complex org. molecules : 

Formation of complex org. molecules Sugar mole combined  Polysaccharides e.g Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen Amino acids  Polypeptide chain Primitive enzyme Exp done by S.FOX

Experimental evidence : 

Experimental evidence H.UREY Stanely Miller 1953 18 days

Miller’s Exp : 

Miller’s Exp Methane, ammonia hydrogen 2:2:1 75000 volts

Problem of Condensation : 

Problem of Condensation Hot soup was dilute Energy and Evaporation

Biological Evolution : 

Biological Evolution Miller 3 Conditions Replicator Mutation Energy & Isolation

Protobionts : 

Protobionts Coacervate Microsphere Exp by S.Fox

Protobionts : 

Protobionts Light absorbed by Chromophores Electrical potential develops around the membrane Probionts became a energy transducing device

First & Best candidate : 

First & Best candidate Protein Carbohydrate Lipid DNA RNA

RNA : 

RNA Ribozyme Viriod Virusoid Clay Genes(smith 1971) Progenote: RNA---DNA

Slide 27: 

RNA genetic system: Exons Introns in majority seq. No regular cell growth Evolution of RNP RNA genome copied to DNA

Eobiont : 

Eobiont 3.8-4 byrs Membrane bound( NA, protein, carbo)

Cognogeny : 

Cognogeny Anarobic Heterotroph Chemosynthetic , Fermentation of organic molecules Starting deviding transferred to bacteriochlorophyll Anarobic Photosynthetic 3.5 –3.8 byrs First aerobic photoautotroph 3.2-3.3 byrs

First cell : 

First cell J.W Schopf 3b yrs old rock with a cynophycean Archaespheroids barbertonensis Eukaryote 1.6 –1.8 byrs

Slide 31: 

Self replicating molecule : 

Self replicating molecule AATE Amino-adenine triacid ester

Slide 33: 

Iron sulphide honey comb by J Whitfield

Human Evolution : 

Human Evolution The wise man

History : 

History 1863 T.A Huxley- Man’s Place in Nature 1871 C.Darwin- The Descent of Man. Led to idea – man has developed from Apes. 1921- C.Dawson- Piltdown man Connecting link First human fossil- E.Dubois- solo river in Java

Classification : 

Classification Kingdom:Animalia Phylum:Chordata Sub-Phy- Vertebrata Section-Gnathostomata Super class- Tetrapoda Class- Mammalia Sub class- Theria Infra class- Eutheria

Slide 37: 

Order- Primata Sub order- Anthropoidea Family- Hominidae Genus- Homo Species- sapeins

Origin of Mammmals : 

Origin of Mammmals Jurassic Period-195m years back from Cynodont reptiles Were shrew like Highly adapted

Place of origin : 

Place of origin Africa , Asia and Europe Central asia Significance of forest in Pliocene

Characteristics of man : 

Characteristics of man Cranial capacity Development of forelimbs Bipedal Pelvic girdle Skull on the top Vertebral column Lumber curve Teeth, Simian gap

Slide 41: 

Orthognathous vs Prognathus Chin Social and speech Binocular vision Reduced fertility THUMB

Evolutionary trends : 

Evolutionary trends Increase in brain capacity or skull Bipedal locomotion Modification of forelimb Opposable thumb Loss of oppsability of great toe in hindlimb Erect and lumber curve Reduction in incisors and canines Loss of jaw power

Slide 43: 

Reduction in ridges of eye brow and semian self. Development of chin Broadening of pelvic girdle Development of speech and social life

Ancestors of Man : 

Ancestors of Man 60 myears ago in oligocene Three off shots from insectivorous mammals Elephant shrew: only rods in retina Nails absent V shape jaw Primates: Procimions and anthropoids

Slide 45: 

Procimions : Lemurs, Loris Tarsiers Anthropoids: Monkey, apes and Man Monkeys: old world and new world

Comparison of monkeys : 

Comparison of monkeys Old world Tail short Narrow nose U-shape jaw 2123/2123 Mensturation cyclePrsent Rhesus,baboon New world Tail long Flat nose U-shape jaw 2136/2136 Mensturation cycle absent Spider monkey

Apes : 

Apes Great apes: Chimpanizee- 400cc Gorila - 500cc Orantagon – 400cc Modern Ape– Gibbion –100cc

Similarities between man and Apes : 

Similarities between man and Apes Tail absent Erect posture Grasping hands Hair on body More cranial capacity Facial musle prsent Mensturation cycle prsent

Slide 49: 

Blood group of A & B antigen Haemoglobin Chromosomal similarities: Man-46 Ape –48 DNA same upto 99% Same banding pattern Chromosome no 3 & 6 are 100% same

Differences : 

Differences Ape Semi erect Shorter neck More hair on body Brain 600cc long fore limbs Chin absent Parallel thumb Man Complete erect Long neck Restricted 1800cc Short fore limbs Chin Present Thumb opposable

Evolution of man : 

Evolution of man Propliopithecus: fossil of ape from Egypt.30-35 m years Dryopithecus: Early miocene, D.africanus also called Proconsul. Common ancestor, found in India Shivapithecus from shivalik hills

Slide 52: 

Oreopithecus: more man like,teeth and jaw like man, erect Ramapithecus: Ancestor of man:also called Kenyopithecus from Africa. 14-15 m , shivalik hills teeth , limbs like man

Slide 53: 

Australopithecus: first fossil of Man ape Small with erect posture Dental arch parabolic Canines reduced Semian gap absent Brain- 450- 600cc A.africans, A. afranses

Australopithicus : 

Australopithicus Gracile: carnivorous Robust:Paranthropus are of two types Zijanothropus: Tanzania Megathropus :Java

Pre-Historic man : 

Pre-Historic man Homo habilis: Handy man Fossil discovered by Leakey 2m years Africa Cranial capacity-680-720cc Chin absent Used stones as tools for hunting

Homo erectus : 

Homo erectus Java man: solo river in Java Lived in caves Tools of bones and stones Cranial capacity 940cc ( 800-1000cc) First man to use fire Chin absent Complete erect , 5 feet tall 70kg

Slide 57: 

Peking man: from china 6 lakh years, lived in caves Cranial capacity: 1050cc(850-1300cc) Chin absent, complete erect Used sharp stone tools and bone tools Omnivorous used fire for cooking

Slide 58: 

Heidelberg man: Europe, massive lower jaw Chin absent

Homo sapiens : 

Homo sapiens Neanderthal man: Origin and evolution before 30000-100000 yrs Fossils from Germany Lived in huts Cranial capacity 1300-1600cc Complete erect

Slide 60: 

Buried dead bodies Clothes of animal skin Chin not developed Speech centre developed Omnivorous

Slide 61: 

Cro-magnon man:30,000yrs back Fossils in France Lived in caves Cranial capacity 1650cc Hunter , domestication of animals 180cm tall Painter of caves

Slide 62: 

Homo sapiens sapiens: 25000 yrs ago distributed in whole eorld in 10,000yrs ago. Cranial capacity 1800cc Chin present Small forehead. Front eyes Started Agriculture

Slide 63: 


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