Distillation 2

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DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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Distillation - a process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat. DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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For any liquid, the individual molecules within the liquid are continuously in motion A small percentage of these molecules attain enough kinetic energy to leave the liquid phase This exerts an opposing pressure on the atmosphere above the solution known as the vapor pressure, P Atmospheric pressure, P atm Vapor Pressure, P DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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P ≥ P atm P < P atm When enough energy, in the form of heat, is imparted to the solution the vapor pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure and the liquid begins to boil DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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The vapor obtained from a boiling liquid, once cooled, will re-condense to a liquid known as the distillate The complete process is called a distillation DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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Separation of one liquid from another C + D Pure C? Pure D? Mixture of C + D? DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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TYPES OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

CLASSIFICATION OF CONTINOUS COLUMNS : 

CLASSIFICATION OF CONTINOUS COLUMNS Nature of feed Binary column Multi component column Number of product streams Multi product column Feed exits Extractive distillation Azeotropic distillation Column Internals Packed columns Tray columns TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

OTHER TYPES : 

OTHER TYPES Simple Distillation Vapors produced are immediately channeled into a condenser which cools and condenses the vapors Used only to separate liquids whose boiling points differ by 25C TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM Heat

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OTHER TYPES Fractional Distillation Utilizes two or more vaporization condensation cyclces, in succession, to effect separation The fractionating column causes the vaporization-condensation cycle to repeat by providing multiple surfaces for the cycle to take place TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM Vapors from the Distilling flask As the hot vapors leave the distilling flask, they condense on the first cold surface, completing one vaporization-condensation cycle. Fractional Distillation

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Vapors from the Distilling flask This cycle will continue until the top of the column is reached Each vapor-condensation (or mini-distillation) cycle is known as one theoretical plate The length of distillation column required to provide one theoretical plate of separation is known as the height equivalent theoretical plate (HETP) TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM Fractional Distillation

OTHER TYPES : 

OTHER TYPES Steam Distillation Methods for distilling compounds which are heat sensitive Involves a process using bubbling steam through heated mixture of the raw material Applied for aromatic herbs and flowers Vacuum Distillation For compounds that have high boiling points TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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OTHER TYPES Air-sensitive vacuum distillation For compounds that have high boiling points as well as air sensitive Perkin Triangle apparatus can be used TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

OTHER TYPES : 

OTHER TYPES Short Path Distillation Use for compounds which are unstable at high temperature Heating temperature can be considerably lower Destructive Distillation involves the strong heating of solids (often organic material) in the absence of oxygen (to prevent combustion) to evaporate various high-boiling liquids TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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OTHER TYPES Pervaporation Distillation method for the separation of mixtures of liquids by partial vaporization through a non-porous membrane. Dry Distillation a chemical reaction known as pyrolysis in which solid substances are heated in a strongly reducing atmosphere and any volatile fractions are collected. TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

OTHER TYPES : 

OTHER TYPES Extractive Distillation distillation in the presence of a miscible, high boiling, relatively non-volatile component, the solvent, that forms no azeotrope with the other components in the mixture Flash evaporation partial vaporization that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

OTHER TYPES : 

OTHER TYPES Freeze Distillation analogous method of purification using freezing instead of evaporation It is not truly distillation, and does not produce products equivalent to distillation Codistillation distillation which is performed on mixtures in which the two compounds are not miscible. TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM

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