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Premium member Presentation Transcript Introduction to Nursing : Introduction to Nursing Historical PerspectivePre-Civilization : Historical PerspectivePre-Civilization Theory of animism Belief that good and evil spirits bring health or illness Physician as medicine man Nurse portrayed as mother caring for family (nurturing role) Historical PerspectiveBeginning of Civilization : Historical PerspectiveBeginning of Civilization Belief that illness is caused by sin and gods’ displeasure Temples were centers of medical care Priest as physician Nurse viewed as slave carrying out menial tasks ordered by priests Historical PerspectiveBeginning of 16th Century : Historical PerspectiveBeginning of 16th Century Focus on religion replaced by focus on warfare Exploration and expansion of knowledge Shortage of nurses: criminals recruited Nursing considered disreputable Contributions of Florence Nightingale : Contributions of Florence Nightingale Identified personal needs of patient and role of nurse in meeting them Established standards for hospital management Established nursing education and respected occupation for women Recognized two components of nursing – health and illness Contributions of Florence Nightingale (continued) : Contributions of Florence Nightingale (continued) Believed nursing is separate and distinct from medicine Recognized nutrition as important to health Instituted occupational and recreational therapy for sick people Stressed the need for continuing education for nurses Maintained accurate records/beginning of nursing research Historical Perspective18th–19th Century : Historical Perspective18th–19th Century Hospital schools organized Female nurses under control of male hospital administrators and physicians Male dominance of health care Nursing becomes respected occupation Modern methods in nursing education founded Historical PerspectiveWorld War II : Historical PerspectiveWorld War II Explosion of knowledge in medicine and technology Efforts to upgrade nursing education Women more assertive and independent Historical Perspective1950s to Present : Historical Perspective1950s to Present Varied healthcare settings developed Nursing broadened in all areas Growth of nursing as a profession Definitions of Nursing : Definitions of Nursing Originated from the Latin word nutrix (to nourish) ICN definition—Promotion of health, prevention of illness, collaborative care ANA definition—Social policy statement Patient is central focus of all definitions Nursing as a Profession and Discipline : Nursing as a Profession and Discipline Practice in a wide variety of settings Develop a specific body of knowledge Conduct and publish nursing research Recognize role in promoting health Use nursing knowledge as base for nursing practice Aims of Nursing : Aims of Nursing To promote health To prevent illness To restore health To facilitate coping with disability or death Meeting the Aims of Nursing : Meeting the Aims of Nursing Nurses use knowledge, skills, and critical thinking Nurses give care in a variety of traditional and expanding nursing roles Nurses use cognitive, technical, interpersonal, and ethical/legal skills Nursing Roles in all Settings : Nursing Roles in all Settings Caregiver Communicator, Teacher/Educator Counselor Leader Researcher Advocate Expanded Educational and Career Roles of Nurses : Expanded Educational and Career Roles of Nurses Clinical nurse specialist Nurse practitioner Nurse anesthetist Nurse midwife Nurse educator Nurse administrator Nurse researcher Nurse entrepreneur Educational Preparation for Nursing Practice : Educational Preparation for Nursing Practice Practical and vocational nursing education Registered nursing education Graduate education in nursing Continuing education In-service education Important Professional Organizations : Important Professional Organizations ICN ANA NLN AACN NSNA Specialty or Special Interest Associations Black Nurses Association, Filipino Nurses Association, Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses Guidelines for Nursing Practice : Guidelines for Nursing Practice ANA Standards of Practice Nurse Practice Act: laws established to regulate practice of nursing in each state Licensure: legal authority to allow graduates of approved schools to take the licensing examination to become an RN (licensure is determined by state) Standards of Practice : Standards of Practice “Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations…” (ANA, 2003) ANA Standards of Practice : ANA Standards of Practice Standards of Practice Standards of Professional Performance The Nursing Process : The Nursing Process One of the major guidelines for nursing practice Helps nurses implement their roles Integrates art and science of nursing Allows nurses to use critical thinking Defines the areas of care that are within the domain of nursing The Scope of Practice and Standardized Procedures : The Scope of Practice and Standardized Procedures Nursing is a dynamic field Overlapping functions Physicians Registered Nurses Standardized Procedures example: Pneumococcal and Influenza vaccines California BRN Nurse Practice Acts : Nurse Practice Acts Define legal scope of nursing practice Exclude untrained or unlicensed people from practicing nursing Create a state board of nursing Make and enforce rules and regulations Define important terms and activities in nursing Provide Legal requirements and titles for RNs and LVNs Establish criteria for education and licensure of nurses Current Trends in Nursing : Current Trends in Nursing Nursing shortage Evidence-based practice Community-based nursing Decreased length of hospital stay Aging population Increase in chronic care conditions Independent nursing practice Culturally competent care National Supply and Demand Projections for FTE Registered Nurses: 2000 to 2020 : National Supply and Demand Projections for FTE Registered Nurses: 2000 to 2020 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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