CARBOHYDRATE

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Slide 1: 

CARBOHYDRATES STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION R.SENTHOOR RAJA I M.Sc ANIMAL SCIENCE

Definition : 

Definition Carbohydrates are defined as organic compounds with the general formula (CH2O)n, hence the name "hydrate of carbon" . They are also defined as polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones with the general formula (CH2O)n.

Function : 

Function A storage form of energy in the body. Cell surface recognition receptors (by other cells, hormones, viruses) Cell surface antigens, e.g. blood groups. Human gastric glycoprotein (mucin) contains more than 60% carbohydrate. A structural component of many organisms: a) cell walls of bacteria b) exoskeleton of insects c) cellulose of plants.

Classification andNomenclature of Carbohydrates : 

Classification andNomenclature of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: These are sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler units. According to the number of carbon atoms, monosaccharides are classified into: trioses (C3), tetroses (C4), pentoses (C5), hexoses (C6).

Classification of Monosaccharide : 

Classification of Monosaccharide

Classification According to theFunctional Group : 

Classification According to theFunctional Group a) Aldoses b) Ketoses

Examples For Monosaccharide : 

Examples For Monosaccharide Glucose (Dextrose); Grape sugar: Glucose is the most important carbohydrate in biology The cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is produced in the process of photosynthesis, and is used in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Fasting blood glucose level is 80-110 mg/100 m mL.

Glucose : 

Glucose CHO H-C-OH HO-C- H H-C- OH H-C- OH CH2OH

Fructose (Levulose); Fruit sugar : 

Fructose (Levulose); Fruit sugar Found in honey & fruits. Fructose is produced from the digestion of sucrose (a disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose). Fructose is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar, estimated to be twice as sweet as sucrose

STRUCTURE OF FRUCTOSE : 

STRUCTURE OF FRUCTOSE

Galactose : 

Galactose It is a sugar found in dairy products,in the form of Lactose. It is a disaccharide formed of Glucose & Galactose. It forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins in several tissues of the body

STRUCTURE OF GALACTOSE : 

STRUCTURE OF GALACTOSE CHO H-C-OH HO-C- H HO-C- H H-C- OH CH2OH

Disaccharides : 

Disaccharides Disaccharides are produced from the condensation of 2 monosaccharide molecules.

Examples : 

Examples Lactose [milk sugar] is formed in the mammary gland. It is composed of galactose and glucose. Maltose (Malt sugar) is composed of 2 molecules of glucose. Sucrose (Table sugar, Cane sugar, Beet sugar) is composed of glucose and fructose

Oligosaccharides : 

Oligosaccharides It contains 3 to 10 monosaccharide units. It occurs in glycoproteins, which are proteins to which oligosaccharides are covalently attached.

Polysaccharides : 

Polysaccharides Polysaccharides contain more than 10 monosaccharide units and can be hundreds of sugar units in length and includes Glycogen: The glycogen molecule has a molecular mass of 108 daltons. Glycogen is a highly branched molecule made of glucose attached by -1,4 glycosidic bonds. After every 8 -10 glucose units there is a branch at -1,6 linkage. The main stores of glycogen in the body are found in skeletal muscle and liver.

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Starch: Formed by plants. Is composed of glucose units attached by a- links. On hydrolysis it gives Dextrins “Amylodextrin, erythrodextrin, achrodextrin” & finally maltose by the enzyme salivary amylase

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Cellulose: Is formed of glucose units attached by β-links

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THANK YOU