Slide 1: CARBOHYDRATES STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION
I M.Sc ANIMAL SCIENCE Definition : Definition Carbohydrates are defined as organic compounds with the general formula (CH2O)n, hence the name "hydrate of carbon" .
They are also defined as polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones with the general formula (CH2O)n. Function : Function A storage form of energy in the body.
Cell surface recognition receptors (by other
cells, hormones, viruses)
Cell surface antigens, e.g. blood groups.
Human gastric glycoprotein (mucin) contains
more than 60% carbohydrate.
A structural component of many organisms:
a) cell walls of bacteria
b) exoskeleton of insects
c) cellulose of plants. Classification andNomenclature of Carbohydrates : Classification andNomenclature of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides:
These are sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler units.
According to the number of carbon atoms, monosaccharides are classified into: trioses (C3), tetroses (C4), pentoses (C5),
hexoses (C6). Classification of Monosaccharide : Classification of Monosaccharide Classification According to theFunctional Group : Classification According to theFunctional Group a) Aldoses
b) Ketoses Examples For Monosaccharide : Examples For Monosaccharide Glucose (Dextrose); Grape sugar:
Glucose is the most important carbohydrate in biology
The cell uses it as a source of energy and
Glucose is produced in the process of
photosynthesis, and is used in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Fasting blood glucose level is
80-110 mg/100 m mL. Glucose : Glucose CHO
CH2OH Fructose (Levulose); Fruit sugar : Fructose (Levulose); Fruit sugar Found in honey & fruits.
Fructose is produced from the digestion of sucrose (a disaccharide consisting of
glucose and fructose).
Fructose is the sweetest naturally
occurring sugar, estimated to be twice as sweet as sucrose STRUCTURE OF FRUCTOSE : STRUCTURE OF FRUCTOSE Galactose : Galactose It is a sugar found in dairy products,in the form of Lactose.
It is a disaccharide formed of Glucose &
It forms part of glycolipids and
glycoproteins in several tissues of the body STRUCTURE OF GALACTOSE : STRUCTURE OF GALACTOSE CHO
CH2OH Disaccharides : Disaccharides Disaccharides are produced from the
condensation of 2 monosaccharide molecules. Examples : Examples Lactose [milk sugar] is formed in the
mammary gland. It is composed of galactose and glucose.
Maltose (Malt sugar) is composed of
2 molecules of glucose.
Sucrose (Table sugar, Cane sugar,
Beet sugar) is composed of glucose and fructose Oligosaccharides : Oligosaccharides It contains 3 to 10 monosaccharide
It occurs in glycoproteins, which are
proteins to which oligosaccharides are
covalently attached. Polysaccharides : Polysaccharides Polysaccharides contain more than 10 monosaccharide units and can be hundreds of sugar units in length and includes
The glycogen molecule has a molecular mass of 108 daltons.
Glycogen is a highly branched molecule made of glucose attached by -1,4 glycosidic bonds. After every 8 -10 glucose units there is a branch at -1,6
The main stores of glycogen in the body
are found in skeletal muscle and liver. Slide 18: Starch:
Formed by plants.
Is composed of glucose units attached
by a- links.
On hydrolysis it gives Dextrins
“Amylodextrin, erythrodextrin, achrodextrin” & finally maltose by the enzyme salivary amylase Slide 19: Cellulose:
Is formed of glucose units attached
by β-links Slide 20: THANK YOU