Slide 1: SILENT THIEF OF THE SIGHT: GLAUCOMA *Rathore K.S., Nema R.K., Bhati C.P.S.
BN Girls College of Pharmacy, Udaipur-Raj.
Rishiraj college of Pharmacy, Indore, MP
BN College of Physical Education, Udaipur
Multidisciplinary International Conference, Aishwariya College of Management, Udaipur
“Emerging issue and global economic scenario” Slide 2: Glaucoma A group of diseases with-
*characteristic optic nerve damage.
*visual field loss.
*elevated IOP; variable in early stage often asymptomatic
(Insidious in nature);.
Damage is irreversible.
Effective treatment is available. Glaucoma is sometimes called the silent thief because it can slowly steal our sight before we realize anything's wrong. It's a leading cause of vision loss. Slide 3: EPIDEMIOLOGY In the world, glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness-(cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, AMD), (word glaucoma is originate from Latin word ‘glaukos’ mean ‘gray-blue’
an estimated 13.8 million people may have glaucoma and 5.2 million of those may be blind. till 2020 it may rise up to 16m (prevalence rate is 4.17% in rural & 5.4% in urban), 3-5% Indians are at the risk (over 90% are yet to be diagnosed) (66.8m world wide) Slide 4: Glaucoma: what is happening Either:the drain blocks here Or poor blood supply here Damages the optic nerve..looks ‘caved in’, called ‘cupped’ Clear liquid called aqueous humor circulates inside the front
portion of the eye.
• To maintain a healthy level of pressure within the eye, a small
amount of aqueous humor is produced constantly, while an equal
amount flows out of the eye through a microscopic drainage
system—the trabecular meshwork. With glaucoma, aqueous humor does
not flow through the trabecular meshwork properly.
• Over time, eye pressure increases, damaging the optic nerve fibers. Slide 5: NORMAL IOP Normal IOP range is 12-21mmHg
Mean= 15.9mmHg ± 2 SD
IOP > 21.7 is abnormal.
Factor affect IOP
*Age *Sex *Race *Heredity
*Diurnal & Seasonal variation
*Blood pressure *Obesity *Drugs
*Posture *Exercise *Neural *Hormone
*Refractive error *Eye movement *Eyelid closure
*Inflammation *Surgery Slide 6: Risk factors of glaucoma Family history (3%), sex (women )
Being over the age of 40 (6%)
Previous eye injuries, thin cornea
History of CVD
African, Hispanic or Asian ancestry Slide 7: Types of glaucoma Congenital
Chronic open angle
Acute closed angle
Secondary (injury, drug induced)
Many different types: normal tension, absolute, Slide 8: Diagnosis of Glaucoma
The diagnosis of glaucoma is based upon;
1. Intraocular pressure ( IOP ) and its measurement. (tonometry)
2. Optic disc or fundus examination.(ophthalmoscope)
3 Visual Field examination ( perimetry )
4. Gonioscopy-for check angle (open/closed) Slide 9: Chronic open angle glaucoma Painless, common in elderly (95%) Don’t notice anything wrong
• Trabecular meshwork becomes less efficient at draining aqueous humor.
• Intraocular pressure (IOP) builds up, which leads to damage of the optic nerve.
• Damage to the optic nerve occurs at different eye pressures among different patients.
• Typically, glaucoma has no . symptoms in its early stages. Slide 10: Acute glaucoma Less common, Emergency
Can be more gradual
Achy, abdominal pain, NV
Go from light into dark
Small eye, shallow anterior chamber, pupil mid dilated,
Iris lens contact
Push the iris forward
Eye feels hard
Halos around light Slide 11: Characteristic pattern to loss of visual field Rim of optic nerve becomes thinner as disc caves in and becomes more cupped Slide 12: Commonly prescribed Anti-glaucoma drugs Beta-blockers
Timoptol (Timolol maleate),
Betaxalol ( Betoptic )
Carteolol ( Teoptic)
Other Common Medications
Dipivefrin (Propine) Slide 13: Treatment Laser
Cycloablation, cyclophotocoagulation Surgical
Trabeculotomy (filtering surgery)
for congenital glaucoma's
for adult glaucoma's
for difficult non responsive Slide 14: Economic impact of glaucoma
Due to Glaucoma15m patients go to hospitals every year, this cost to Rs.200 crores to Indian government, also affect working hours and health index of nation. Slide 15: Conclusion
Prevention is only the cure, so at proper time detection, diagnosis and treatment are only way to prevent vision impairment and blindness by glaucoma. Slide 16: THANK YOU
For your attention and your openness to challenge “the silent thief of sight”