Carbon Capture and Sequestration

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Fourth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration Developing Potential Paths Forward Based on the Knowledge, Science and Experience to Date : 

Fourth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration Developing Potential Paths Forward Based on the Knowledge, Science and Experience to Date Sequestration Policy and Feasibility Studies (2) Policy Implications from Regional Energy Growth May 2-5, 2005, Hilton Alexandria Mark Center, Alexandria Virginia David Shropshire, Big Sky Carbon Sequestration PartnershipSusan Capalbo, Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

Investigating the Policy Implications from future regional energy growth : 

Investigating the Policy Implications from future regional energy growth The Big Sky region holds high potential for future energy growth due to significant energy resources (coal, wind) and central proximity to western energy markets.

Regional Energy Growth Assessment : 

Complex Dynamic Process with many factors and policy drivers Regional Energy Growth Assessment

Regional Climate Changes Could Directly Impact Energy Requirements : 

Regional Climate Changes Could Directly Impact Energy Requirements Water availability to support energy production (largely hydropower at present) Market demands for electricity (hotter, colder) Economics of power systems Carbon taxes Carbon capture and sequestration Preferences for carbon neutral energy systems Renewable, fossil, or nuclear systems Power plant siting (near carbon sinks)

Regional Climate Change : 

Regional Climate Change Trends indicate warmer seasons throughout the year

Regional Climate Change : 

Hotter Summers may be accompanied by less precipitation Regional Climate Change

Climate Change Implications : 

Climate Change Implications Could cause a switch from winter peaking to summer peaking energy demands Suggests that less dependence should be placed on hydroelectricity in the future Can affect the desirability of the region for business relocation and demographic migration relative to other regions of the U.S.

Water Availability Implications : 

Water Availability Implications New thermoelectric power will put additional demands on surface and water supplies Future power plants will need to conserve water and be sited in areas with dependable water resources The importance of water resources from the Big Sky region will grow in step with energy demands and population expansion in the region

Big Sky Regional Population Growth : 

Big Sky Regional Population Growth Western states are the fastest growing region in the U.S. Expanding populations + Growing economies = Increased energy demand

The Big Sky Region contains substantial energy resources : 

The Big Sky Region contains substantial energy resources Nearly 40% of total U.S. Coal Reserves are in the Big Sky region Huge water resources to support Hydroelectric power Many areas of high potential to support Wind power Natural gas reserves may also be tapped in the future

Energy Transmission Infrastructure : 

Energy Transmission Infrastructure The Big Sky region is central to many load centers, but is currently constrained by transmission capacity

Land Availability : 

Land Availability Land is required to support the siting of new power plants and upgrades and additions to energy transmission Suitable lands are necessary for energy production and transmission Lands are available in the Big Sky region but may require access to public lands

Environmental and Regulatory Constraints : 

Environmental and Regulatory Constraints There are increasing restrictions associated with the emissions from fossil plants The Big Sky region currently allows unrestricted carbon emissions Carbon restrictions within the west may provide short-term competitive advantage for the region Regulatory issues associated with geologic sequestration are important to future fossil energy development in carbon constrained environments

Power Plant Siting Criteria should adapted to account for new technologies : 

Power Plant Siting Criteria should adapted to account for new technologies Installation of the high-efficiency plants near markets for hydrogen (e.g., petroleum refining) Markets for the fuels and products derived from hydrogen and captured carbon (CO) Location of carbon sinks Terrestrial (provide near-term carbon offsets) Geologic (longer-term resources)

Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration : 

The Big Sky region has extensive land mass that provides a tremendous potential for greenhouse gas offsets Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Forests, tillage/no-till cropland, grazing, pasture, and rangeland - including Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands

Geologic Carbon Sequestration : 

Geologic Carbon Sequestration The Big Sky region has a diversity of geologic formations with large potentials for permanent carbon storage Mafic volcanic (basalt) formations and carbonate saline aquifers – which are a unique character of the Big Sky region

In Phase II, the regional energy analysis will be coupled to the capacity for sequestration : 

In Phase II, the regional energy analysis will be coupled to the capacity for sequestration Evaluate key factors affecting energy growth Understand relationship between variables Build dynamic policy analysis model Benchmark model to energy demand models Couple model to GIS database interface Collaborate with regional policy centers Support state and regional energy planning

In Conclusion : 

In Conclusion Evaluating the policy implications from future energy growth is a complex undertaking with many dynamic interactions. Climate change is an emerging condition with the potential to affect regional energy growth. The Big Sky region is well positioned for future energy development, while holding a wealth of carbon sinks.

Questions? : 

Questions? Big Sky web site at www.bigskyco2.org Technical Paper with references is available David Shropshire, Idaho National Laboratory, David.Shropshire@inl.gov, (208) 526-6800 Susan Capalbo, Montana State University, scapalbo@montana.edu, (406) 994-5619

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