Project Management

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Project Management : 

Project Management Chika Udeaja Lecturer School of the Built Environment University of Northumbria

Overall Plan : 

Overall Plan Part 1 (9:00 – 10:00am): Lecture Break (10:00 – 10:10pm) Part 2 (10:10 – 11:00am): Lecture Part 3 (11:15 – 1:00 pm): Workshop – 23/02/06

Content : 

Content Project - Part 1 Project Management (PM) - Part 1 Tools and Techniques - Part 2

Construction Industry Characteristics : 

Construction Industry Characteristics Project Specific Location One-off Basis Uncertainties Low Barrier to Entry Ad hoc Demand Method used for Price Determination

Construction Projects : 

Construction Projects A Project is a human activity that achieves a clear objective against time scale They are time-consuming undertaking that exist because of a need to expand, take advantage of a commercial situation and improve the environment

Construction Projects : 

Construction Projects Hamilton (1997) offered this explanation: “They are unique in nature and range from simple to complex and from small to large, thus forming an infinite range of combinations, all of which require appraisal to evaluate, the most appropriate procurement route and the establishment of a project management infrastructure”

Construction Projects Characteristics : 

Construction Projects Characteristics A clear Objective A fixed time scale Mainly one-off finite piece of work with fixed started and end points The typical activities passes through successive and distinct stages The development of a project start from initial planning to project close-out Site based process No practice or rehearsal Demand Inputs from such disparate fields - team Activities are presented in the form of a network Each activity requires a certain amount of resources, which may include time constraint, labour, material, money Subjected to the influence of highly variable and sometimes unpredictable factors

Construction Project Activities : 

Construction Project Activities Planning Regulation Design Manufacture Construction Maintenance

Project Management : 

Project Management An emergent professional discipline Previous team roles Separates the management function of a project from the design and execution functions Defined as: “the overall planning, co-ordination and control of a project from inception to completion aimed at meeting a client’s requirements in order to produce a functionally and financially viable project that will be completed on time within authorised cost and to the required quality standards” (CIOB, 1998:3) “a human activity that achieves a clear objective against a time scale” (Reiss, 2001)

Other Related Concepts : 

Other Related Concepts Programme Management Project Management Project Co-ordination Planning Organising Coordinating Controlling Construction Programme Not the same

Elements of Project Management : 

Elements of Project Management

Project Planning : 

Project Planning Involves Establishing project objectives Identifying activities and tasks to be performed Estimating the duration of each activity/task Establishing the relationships between tasks Estimating the resources required (costs, etc.) Activity planning

Planning Techniques : 

Planning Techniques Bar/Gantt Charts Network Analysis Activity on the arrow Activity on the node (precedence diagrams) Line of Balance Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Space-Time Diagrams

Bar/Gantt Charts : 

Bar/Gantt Charts Time Now Plan Actual

Bar/Gantt Charts : 

Bar/Gantt Charts Advantages Simple and easy to understand Effective communication document Easy to record progress Disadvantages Not very useful for very large projects Paper versions limited in scope Not easy to update

Network Analysis : 

Network Analysis Planning data linked through the logic that defines relationships between activities Clearly defined steps to produce a network Steps in producing a network List all activities Produce a network showing the logical relationship between activities Assess the duration of each activity, produce a schedule and determine the start and finish times of each activity and the float available Assess the resources required

Producing a Logical Network : 

Producing a Logical Network Activity represented by an arrow (or node) Arrows joined together in logical sequence Check: Which activities must be complete before this activity starts? Which activity cannot start until this activity is complete? Which activities have no logical relationship with the activity and can therefore take place at any time?

Activity on the Arrow : 

Activity on the Arrow 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 6 1 3 6 2 Event Earliest time of start event Latest time of start event Earliest time of finish event Latest time of finish event Duration

Activity on the Node : 

Activity on the Node Earliest start Earliest Finish Duration Latest start Latest Finish Activity Identifier

Difference Between the Two Techniques : 

Difference Between the Two Techniques

Network for Drawing Networks : 

Network for Drawing Networks

Producing a Schedule : 

Producing a Schedule Duration and time analysis Float Total float Total time by which the activity could be extended or delayed and still not interfere with the project end date Free float

Analysis : 

Analysis There are three main types of Analysis: Arithmetical Graphical Computer

Analysis : 

Analysis In arithmetical, analyse are done in either forward and backward passes: Early Finish and start is calculated forward EF = ES + D Latest Finish and start is calculated backward LS = LF – D

Calculation of Float : 

Calculation of Float

Assessing Resources : 

Assessing Resources Time-limited resource considerations Resource-limited considerations

Class Exercise/Discussion : 

Class Exercise/Discussion Think about a project (or projects) you’ve been involved in… What did you do to implement the project? How was the project planned? What techniques/tools were used in planning/executing the project?

An Example : 

An Example Breakdown the project into tasks and if possible the task into sub-tasks. Work breakdown structure Network analysis

Work Breakdown Structure : 

Work Breakdown Structure Task A Task B Task C Task F Task E Task D Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Precedence Example : 

Precedence Example Start Task A Task C Task B Finish Task D

Class Experience of PM : 

Class Experience of PM Distributing tasks to different members of the team Set goals and standards Carry out research Analysis of information Clarify tasks to be performed

Exercise : 

Exercise Network Analysis exercise

Conclusions : 

Conclusions Construction teams are ‘virtual teams’ Goal is to improve their effectiveness and efficiency Organising the activities of teams is one way of making them effective Project Management (Planning) is one way to ‘organise’ the activities of the team Various techniques and tools are used in project planning

References and Further Reading : 

References and Further Reading Resis, G (1995), Project Management Demystified: Today’s tools & techniques, 2nd Edition, E & FN SPON. Nickson, D & Siddons, S (1997), Managing Projects, 1st Edition, Made Simple Books (An imprint of Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0750634715. CIOB (1998), Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Essex. Harris, F. and McCaffer, R. (2001), Modern Construction Management, 5th Edition, Blackwell Science, London. (See chapter on Planning Techniques). Lockyer, K. and Gordon, J. (1996), Project Management and Project Network Techniques, 6th Edition, Pitman Publishing, London. Lester, A. (1991), Project Planning and Control, 2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Part 3: Workshop : 

Part 3: Workshop Use of MS Project Software (see tutorial sheet)

Question Time…… : 

Question Time……