V.PARTHASARATHY : V.PARTHASARATHY LECTURER IN ZOOLOGY
MADURAI DISTRICT PLASTIC HAZARDS ABOUT PLASTICS : ABOUT PLASTICS Plastics are synthetic substances produced by chemical reactions. Almost all plastics are made from petroleum, except a few experimental resins derived from corn and other organic substances.
Plastics are polymers, very long chain molecules that consist of subunits (monomers) linked together by chemical bonds
The monomers of petrochemical plastics are inorganic materials (such as styrene) and are not biodegradable Slide 3: Plastic has many properties which has made it a raw material of choice for Manufactures of plastic Bags and packing materials.
Cost of production, light
weight, strength, easy process of manufacture,
. There is nothing wrong with plastic as a material. Man has simply not put the plastic to the right use/ or using it without taking proper care of other related norms of usage. SHOPPING CULTURE : SHOPPING CULTURE EARLIERDAYS TODAY Slide 5: Before the advent of poly-bags, people did shop, buy things, bring eatables from the market, and did the same marketing as is done now. How did they did it? The raw material for the bag was decided by its usage. Cloth bags for lighter items, Gunny bags/Jute bags for voluminous and heavier goods. The cost did not justify use and discard attitude. These bags were washable and reusable lasting for six months to a year. WHAT ARE THE HAZARDS ? : WHAT ARE THE HAZARDS ? The hazards plastics pose are numerous : The hazards plastics pose are numerous The land gets littered by plastic bag garbage presenting an ugly and unhygienic seen.
Plastic waste blocks drains and gutters, stopping the flow of rain water and sewerage, causing an overflow which becomes the breeding ground for germs and bacteria causing many diseases
The toxic smoke produced while burning plastic kills thousands each year.
Workers and people living near a plastic or resin factory are prone to LUNGS & INTESTINAL cancer and birth defects. CONT……. : CONT……. Plastic bags that fly and land in agricultural land retard the growth of the crops by wrapping itself around the plants.
Plastic waste that lie on the soil for long stop the passage of oxygen causing soil infertility
Domestic animals like cows and goats are often found dead after swallowing bits of plastic that gets mingled with the grass they eat. Hazards in the sea or coastal areas : Hazards in the sea or coastal areas There are approximately 46,000 pieces of plastic floating in each square mile of our coastal area.
There are approximately 131,000 pieces of plastic wastes are getting in to minute pieces by every month and floating in each square mile of our coastal area. Cont….. : Cont….. Many marine infected organisms were found with plastic fragments in the stomachs and plastic molecules in their muscles
Turtles, dolphins and many other marine creatures often mistake small plastic bags for jelly fish after swallowing them they develop intestinal blockade which often lead to their death. Slide 11: A northern sea lion, entangled in an old net, St. Paul Island, Alaska, rescued by the National Marine Mammal Laboratory Slide 12: Medical waste, Coney Island, 1988 Needles and syringes suspected to have washed from New York City streets and sewer systems after heavy rain storms, washed up onto Long Island and New Jersey beaches during the summer of 1988. Although medical trash turns up infrequently on beaches, estimated costs from lost tourism and recreation that year were as high as $3 billion §. Slide 13: Biologists who performed an autopsy on an emaciated male sperm whale beached at Sea Side Heights, New Jersey, found this party balloon, ribbon still attached, blocking the animal's digestive tract Slide 14: Ducie Atoll, Pitcairn Islands, South Pacific An important breeding area for seabirds, the atoll is littered with as much trash as some European beaches. Ducie Atoll in the South Pacific is one of the most remote islands. Yet when a scientist visited in 1991, he found over 950 pieces of trash in a 1.5-mile (2.4-km) stretch of beach. : Ducie Atoll in the South Pacific is one of the most remote islands. Yet when a scientist visited in 1991, he found over 950 pieces of trash in a 1.5-mile (2.4-km) stretch of beach. Slide 16: Buoys: large 46
Crates (bread, bottle) 1
4 Plastic bottles (drinks, toiletries) 71 Glass bottles (from 15 countries) 171 Jars 18 Broken plastic pieces 268 Bottle tops 74 Pieces of plastic pipe 29 Pieces of rope 44 Shoes 25 Fluorescent tubes 6 Slide 17: light bulbs 6
Aerosol cans 7
Food/drink cans 7
Pop tops 2
Gasoline cans 4 Gloves (1 pair) 2 Canned meat (leaking but intact) 1 Cigarette lighters (not working) 3
Doll's heads (1 male, 2 female) 2 Copper sheeting from shipwrecks 8
Truck tire 1 Slide 18: Plastic ninepin 1
Glue syringe 1
Small gas cylinder 1 Construction worker's hat 1
Plastic coat hanger 1
Toy soldier 1
Half a toy airplane 1
Tea strainer 1
Football (punctured) 1 Car floormat 1
Asthma inhaler 1 Other hazards : Other hazards poisonous chemicals released during the PVC lifecycle, such as mercury, dioxins, and phthalates, which may pose irreversible life-long health threats.
When produced or burned, PVC plastic releases dioxins, a group of the most potent synthetic chemicals ever tested, which can cause cancer and harm the immune and reproductive systems. Slide 20: PVC is useless without the addition of a plethora of toxic additives, which can make the PVC product itself harmful to consumers. These chemicals can evaporate or leach out of PVC, posing risks to children and consumers.
New car smell? New shower curtain smell? That’s the smell of poisonous chemicals off-gassing from the PVC. One of the most common toxic additives is DEHP, a phthalate that is a suspected carcinogen and reproductive toxicant readily found in numerous PVC products. Children can be exposed to phthalates by chewing on vinyl toys. Slide 21: When heated in a building fire, PVC releases toxic hydrogen chloride gas, forming deadly hydrochloric acid
Building occupants may be killed from inhaling toxic PVC fumes before they are able to escape. Slide 22: PVC cannot be effectively recycled due to the many different toxic additives used to soften or stabilize PVC, which can contaminate the recycling batch. Slide 23: In fact just one PVC bottle can contaminate a recycling load of 100,000 PET bottles. Recycling of PVC is negligible, with estimates ranging from 0.1% to 3% of post consumer PVC waste being recycled. Slide 24: It is surprising that amongst the world full of the plastic users, very few are aware of the harmful effects of plastic even though environmentalists are busy creating an awareness of the hazards of plastic. (Like SOURASTRA COLLEGE)
Many countries have banned the use of plastic bags and many are in the process of doing so. Slide 25: 12 Billion plastic bags are handed out to shoppers in Britain every year.
70 million plastic bags are disposed of by Bangladesh nationals every year.
6 billion plastic bags are thrown away by Australians every minute. Slide 26: The use of plastic in India has more than doubled in the last 20 years.
It has increased from 1.8 million tons to about 5 million tones since 1995-96 up till now. SOLUTION : SOLUTION 3 things we can do
Avoid the use of thin plastic carry bags.
Avoid the use of disposable plastic cups and plates.
Switch over to cloth, jute, paper and glass products. All these things are possible for us Slide 28: The choice to be environment friendly is ours so that we have a clean, green, healthy earth to bequeath to posterity. Save Our country and the Mother EARTH Slide 29: Thanks for your attention any? Stay connected Zoopartha