genetic engineering


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Genetics and Genetic Engineering : 

Genetics and Genetic Engineering

terms : 

terms agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments

centrifuge : 

centrifuge device for separating substances on the basis of density

clones : 

clones organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source

complementary : 

complementary containing structures that match or bond with related structures

electrophoresis : 

electrophoresis technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field

Excise : 

Excise to remove a part by a process similar to cutting

Expression : 

Expression the appearance of a trait directed by a gene

Genetic code : 

Genetic code a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction

Genetic Engineering : 

Genetic Engineering technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

Genetics : 

Genetics science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another

Host : 

Host a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source

Hybrid : 

Hybrid offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup

Ligase : 

Ligase enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA

Molecular weight : 

Molecular weight sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule

Mutation : 

Mutation a heritable change in genetic makeup

Nucleotides : 

Nucleotides building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base

Plasmid : 

Plasmid a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA

Polymerase : 

Polymerase an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid

Recombinant DNA : 

Recombinant DNA DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering

Restriction enzyme : 

Restriction enzyme restriction endonuclease enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites

sequence : 

sequence order of nucleotides or amino acids

template : 

template a pattern used for developing a complementary structure

trait : 

trait a characteristic resulting from gene expression

transform : 

transform to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA

vector : 

vector an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell

Living material : 

Living material Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction

Complex Organism : 

Complex Organism higher organism an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit ex. Plants, animals, humans

Organ : 

Organ arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.

Tissue : 

Tissue arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ

Cell : 

Cell smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes

Basic Cell structures : 

Basic Cell structures cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact

cell membrane : 

cell membrane delicate structure that surrounds the cell

chloroplasts : 

chloroplasts site of photosynthesis in plant cells contain some DNA

Cytoplasm : 

Cytoplasm cell fluid containing all cell structures

Nucleus : 

Nucleus control center of a cell contains most of the DNA

Chromosomes : 

Chromosomes structures that are physical carriers of genes made p of DNA are located in cell nucleus

Mitochondria : 

Mitochondria energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm contain some DNA

Plasmid : 

Plasmid extra chromosomal piece of DNA located in the cell cytoplasm

Ribosome : 

Ribosome site where new proteins are produced result of genetic expression

Cell reproduction : 

Cell reproduction mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells increases by simple division chromosomes remain paired during cell division

meiosis : 

meiosis occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)

meiosis : 

meiosis increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual

meiosis : 

meiosis one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes

Genetic engineering : 

Genetic engineering technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

Genetic engineering : 

Genetic engineering movement of a gene from one organism to another

Other names : 

Other names recombinant DNA technology recombinant DNA science gene transfer gene splicing gene cloning

Naturally occurring : 

Naturally occurring alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment

Naturally occurring : 

Naturally occurring some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell

Naturally occurring : 

Naturally occurring natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation

Scientific Gen eng. : 

Scientific Gen eng. Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another

Scientific Gen eng. : 

Scientific Gen eng. Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources

Scientific Gen eng. : 

Scientific Gen eng. Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms

Scientific Gen eng. : 

Scientific Gen eng. The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms

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