Basic Networking : Basic Networking What is Network ?
A network is the most cost-effective way to share a collection of communication equipment such as PC's, servers, printers, and modems that has been connected together by cables. A network helps people work collectively, not just individually. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 1 Network Diagram : Network Diagram How Network is connected Done by S.P.Muthuraja 2 Simple Computer Network : Simple Computer Network How the file sharing takes place in a simple computer network Done by S.P.Muthuraja 3 The Basic Network : The Basic Network Server or Client Workstation
Networking Interface Card's (NIC)
Networking Operating System such as Windows NT/2000, XP, 2003 Server, Vista, Linux etc. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 4 Terms of Networking : Terms of Networking Peer-to-Peer, this is commonly two PC connected together to share files or a printer.
Local Area Network (LAN), this is probably the most popular in smaller applications. This comes down to many computers interconnected in an office or home. This can be anywhere from two computers or hundreds in one physical area. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 5 Terms of Networking : Terms of Networking Wide Area Network (WAN), boils down to computer networks that are far apart and connect via phone, satellite, and so forth.
Node, this is just another name for the client computer or the computer using the network. You are in essence a node right now using this website which is located on a server over the Internet. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 6 Terms of Networking : Terms of Networking Topology, is the geometric arrangement of the network. This is more or less how the network is arranged. We will discuss this one more later on.
Protocol, the protocol is a ways of communication for the network. Think of it as trying to speak French to an English computer. We need a protocol so they can understand one another. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 7 Terms of Networking : Terms of Networking Data Packets, messages of data that has been sent over your network.
Architecture's, this comes down to peer to peer or the client server applications. In the peer to peer we share resources of each other's computers equally and the client server is one computer with all the host files and data. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 8 Terms of Networking : Terms of Networking Right now you are connecting to my server for this web page as a client/server architecture.
Media, this amounts to how your network is physically connected. Most LAN's connect with a copper wire or cable coaxial. Some newer technologies also allow you to connect wireless using your existing power outlets. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 9 Types of Network : Types of Network LAN – Local Area Network
MAN – Metropolitan Area Network
WAN – Wide Area Network Done by S.P.Muthuraja 10 LAN (Local Area Network) : LAN (Local Area Network) A local area network may serve as few as two or three users (for example, in a home network) or many as thousands of users.
Local-area networks (LANs) evolved around the PC revolution. LANs enabled multiple users in a relatively small geographical area to exchange files and messages, as well as to access shared resources such as file servers and printers. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 11 LAN (Local Area Network) : LAN (Local Area Network) Is a group of computers and associated device that share a common communications line or wireless link and typically share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (for example, within an College Building). Done by S.P.Muthuraja 12 LAN (Local Area Network) - Benefits : LAN (Local Area Network) - Benefits LAN consist of the following components:
Network interface cards
Network devices Done by S.P.Muthuraja 13 LAN (Local Area Network) -Technologies : LAN (Local Area Network) -Technologies Common LAN technologies include the following:
FDDI Done by S.P.Muthuraja 14 LAN (Local Area Network) -Technologies : LAN (Local Area Network) -Technologies Ethernet Done by S.P.Muthuraja 15 LAN (Local Area Network) -Technologies : LAN (Local Area Network) -Technologies Token Ring Done by S.P.Muthuraja 16 LAN (Local Area Network) -Technologies : LAN (Local Area Network) -Technologies FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) Done by S.P.Muthuraja 17 Fiber Optics : Fiber Optics Infrared light is transmitted through fiber and confined due to total internal reflection.
Fibers can be made out of either plastic or glass.
Used for high speed backbones and pipes over long distances.
Comparatively expensive. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 18 Fiber Optic – Cut View Cable : Fiber Optic – Cut View Cable Done by S.P.Muthuraja 19 LAN (Local Area Network) -Characteristics : LAN (Local Area Network) -Characteristics Topology
The geometric arrangement of devices on the network or the shape of a local-area network (LAN) or other communications system. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 20 LAN (Local Area Network) -Characteristics : LAN (Local Area Network) -Characteristics Protocols
The rules and encoding specifications for sending data. The protocol defines the format and meaning of the data that is exchanged. The protocols also determine whether the network uses a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 21 Protocols - Roles : Protocols - Roles Addressing and routing of messages
Sequence and flow controls
Example: HTTP protocol for communication between web browsers
and servers. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 22 LAN (Local Area Network) -Characteristics : LAN (Local Area Network) -Characteristics Media
Devices can be connected by twisted-pair wire, coaxial cables, or fiber optic cables. Some networks do without connecting media altogether, communicating instead via radio waves. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 23 LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types : LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types Done by S.P.Muthuraja 24 LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types : LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types Bus topology:
All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Ethernet systems use a bus topology. In Simple way we can say us (All devices share a common wire to transmit and receive data through using an arbitration method.) Done by S.P.Muthuraja 25 Diagram of Bus Topology : Diagram of Bus Topology Done by S.P.Muthuraja 26 Industrial BUS TOPOLOGY : Industrial BUS TOPOLOGY Done by S.P.Muthuraja 27 LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types : LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types Star topology:
All devices are connected to a central hub. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub. This is not much of a problem anymore with the widespread deployment of switches. At the central point we usually see a device generically called a hub or switch. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 28 Diagram of Star Topology : Diagram of Star Topology Done by S.P.Muthuraja 29 Industrial STAR TOPOLOGY : Industrial STAR TOPOLOGY Done by S.P.Muthuraja 30 LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types : LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types Ring topology:
All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 31 LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types : LAN (Local Area Network) –Topology types A ring is created to which each device attaches. A special signal, called a token travels around the ring letting it know that it is that device’s turn to transmit. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 32 Diagram of Ring Topology : Diagram of Ring Topology Done by S.P.Muthuraja 33 Industrial RING TOPOLOGY : Industrial RING TOPOLOGY Done by S.P.Muthuraja 34 Wireless Topology : Wireless Topology Not really a specific topology since a workstation in a wireless LAN can be anywhere as long as it is within transmitting distance to an access point
Speeds up to 50 Mbps possible Workstations reside within a basic service set, while multiple basic service sets create an extended service set. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 35 Basic Wireless Network : Basic Wireless Network Done by S.P.Muthuraja 36 Comparisons of Various Topologies : Comparisons of Various Topologies Done by S.P.Muthuraja 37 Simple LAN Connection - College : Simple LAN Connection - College Done by S.P.Muthuraja 38 (MAN) - Metropolitan-area networks : (MAN) - Metropolitan-area networks A MAN usually consists of two or more LANs in a common geographic area. Typically, a service provider is used to connect two or more LAN sites using private communication lines or optical services. A MAN can also be created using wireless bridge technology by beaming signals across public areas. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 39 WAN – (Wide Area Network) : WAN – (Wide Area Network) WANs interconnect LANs, which then provide access to computers or file servers in other locations. Because WANs connect user networks over a large geographical area, they make it possible for businesses to communicate across great distances. WANs allow computers, printers, and other devices on a LAN to be shared with distant locations. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 40 WAN – (Wide Area Network) : WAN – (Wide Area Network) WANs provide instant communications across large geographic areas.
Collaboration software provides access to real-time information and resources and allows meetings to be held remotely.
WANs have created a new class of workers called telecommuters. These people never have to leave their homes to go to work. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 41 WAN Design : WAN Design Operate over a large and geographically separated area.
Allow users to have real-time communication capabilities with other users.
Provide full-time remote resources connected to local services.
Provide e-mail, Internet, file transfer, and e-commerce services. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 42 WAN Technologies : WAN Technologies Modems
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
T1, E1, T3, and E3
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Done by S.P.Muthuraja 43 WAN Diagram : WAN Diagram Done by S.P.Muthuraja 44 Open System Interconnection Model Layers : Open System Interconnection Model Layers 7 Application
2 Data Link
1 Physical Done by S.P.Muthuraja 45 OSI Layer Structure : OSI Layer Structure Physical layer - (defines the physical characteristics of the network)
Data-link layer - (provides safe communication of data over the physical network)
Network layer - (handles connection to the network by the higher layers)
Transport layer - (provides end-to-end errors detection and correction) Done by S.P.Muthuraja 46 OSI Layer Structure : OSI Layer Structure Session layer - (manages sessions among applications)
Presentation layer - (provides standard data representations for applications)
Application layer- (applications connected to the network) Done by S.P.Muthuraja 47 OSI Layer Brief Overview : OSI Layer Brief Overview Physical layer: ensures a safe and efficient travel of data; consists of electronic circuits for data transmission etc.
Data link layer: in charge of data encapsulation under the form of packets and their interpretation at the physical layer.
Network layer: in charge of packets transmission from a source A to a destination B. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 48 OSI Layer Brief Overview : OSI Layer Brief Overview Transport layer: in charge of the delivery of packets from a source A to a destination B
Session layer: in charge of the management of network access.
Presentation layer: determines the format of the data transmitted to applications, data compressing/decompressing, encrypting etc. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 49 OSI Layer Brief Overview : OSI Layer Brief Overview Application layer: contains the applications which are used by the end-user, such as Java, Word etc. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 50 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Cables
In the network you will commonly find three types of cables used these are the, coaxial cable, fiber optic, and twisted pair. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 51 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Coaxial Cables: A single insulated inner wire is surrounded by a cylindrical conductor which is covered with a shield; it transmits electromagnetic signals. Coaxial cable is classified into two categories: baseband (uses digital signals) and broadband (uses analog signals) coaxial cable. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 52 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Coaxial Cables:
Thick Coaxial Cable, this type cable is usually yellow in color and used in what is called thick nets, and has two conductors. This coax can be used in 500-meter lengths. The cable itself is made up of a solid center wire with a braided metal shield and plastic sheathing protecting the rest of the wire. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 53 Coaxial Cable: Diagram : Coaxial Cable: Diagram Done by S.P.Muthuraja 54 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Thin Coaxial Cable, as with the thick coaxial cable is used in thick nets the thin version is used in thin nets. This type cable is also used called or referred to as RG-58. The cable is really just a cheaper version of the thick cab Done by S.P.Muthuraja 55 Coaxial Cable Specifications : Coaxial Cable Specifications Other Names: Yellow Cable, Thick wire
Medium: Coaxial cable
Data Rate:10 Mbps
Segment Length: max. 500 m
Users: max.100 Tranceivers/segment
Termination:50 Ohm, 1 Watt
Connection: via Tranceiver with Vampire tap Done by S.P.Muthuraja 56 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Twisted Pair Cables: Two insulated copper wires twisted together in a regular spiral pattern; one pair establishes one communication link; it transmits electromagnetic signals. Twisted pairs are distinguished between shielded and unshielded twisted pairs according to their protection against electromagnetic fields. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 57 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), this is the most popular form of cables in the network and the cheapest form that you can go with. The UTP has four pairs of wires and all inside plastic sheathing. The biggest reason that we call it Twisted Pair is to protect the wires from interference from themselves. Each wire is only protected with a thin plastic sheath. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 58 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Done by S.P.Muthuraja 59 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), is more common in high-speed networks. The biggest difference you will see in the UTP and STP is that the STP use's metallic shield wrapping to protect the wire from interference. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 60 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Shielded Twisted Pair Done by S.P.Muthuraja 61 Twisted Pair Cable Specifications : Twisted Pair Cable Specifications Medium: 2-pair Category 5 Cable
10 Mbit/s (10BASE-T),100 Mbit/s (100BASE-TX)Segment Length: max. 100 m (point-to-point)
Connection: RJ45 Connector Done by S.P.Muthuraja 62 Network Basic Cabling : Network Basic Cabling Fiber Optic: consists of three concentric sections, the core (a fiber conducting optical rays), the cladding (reflecting optical rays) and the jacket (surrounding one or many fibers to protect them); transmits optical signals, which must be transformed to electromagnetic signals Done by S.P.Muthuraja 63 Fiber Optic - Diagram : Fiber Optic - Diagram Done by S.P.Muthuraja 64 Fiber Optics Specifications : Fiber Optics Specifications Medium: 2 Fiber Pairs (50/125 or 62, 5/125)
Data Rate:10 Mbit/s (10BASE-FL),100 Mbit/s (100BASE-FX)
Segment Length: max. 2000 m (point-to-point)
Connection: ST Connector (10-BASE-FL)Duplex SC Connector (100BASe-FX) Done by S.P.Muthuraja 65 Advantages and Disadvantages : Advantages and Disadvantages Each transmission media has its own advantages and disadvantages. They differ in costs, capacity, possible length, and electromagnetic isolation. Which media to be chosen depends on three other characterization features of LANs: firstly, which topology is to be implemented. Secondly, which capacity and reliability are needed. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 66 Network Hardware - HUB : Network Hardware - HUB Done by S.P.Muthuraja 67 Network Hardware - HUB : Network Hardware - HUB An unintelligent network device that sends one signal to all of the stations connected to it.
Traditionally, hubs are used for star topology networks, but they are often used with other configurations to make it easy to add and remove computers without bringing down the network.
Resides on Layer 1 of the OSI model Done by S.P.Muthuraja 68 Network Hardware - SWITCH : Network Hardware - SWITCH Done by S.P.Muthuraja 69 Network Hardware - SWITCH : Network Hardware - SWITCH Split large networks into small segments, decreasing the number of users sharing the same network resources and bandwidth.
Understands when two devices want to talk to each other, and gives them a switched connection Done by S.P.Muthuraja 70 Network Hardware - SWITCH : Network Hardware - SWITCH Helps prevent data collisions and reduces network congestion, increasing network performance.
Most home users get very little, if any, advantage from switches, even when sharing a broadband connection.
Resides on Layer 2 of the OSI model. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 71 Network Hardware - ROUTER : Network Hardware - ROUTER Done by S.P.Muthuraja 72 Network Hardware - ROUTER : Network Hardware - ROUTER A device that connects any number of LANs.
Uses standardized protocols to move packets efficiently to their destination.
More sophisticated than bridges, connecting networks of different types (for example, star and token ring) Done by S.P.Muthuraja 73 Network Hardware - ROUTER : Network Hardware - ROUTER Forwards data depending on the Network address (IP), not the Hardware (MAC) address.
Routers are the only one of these four devices that will allow you to share a single IP address among multiple network clients.
Resides on Layer 3 of the OSI model. Done by S.P.Muthuraja 74 Slide 75: Thank You Done by S.P.Muthuraja 75