Industrial Applications of Micro-Organisms : Industrial Applications of Micro-Organisms We know what they are, but how are they used? For micro organisms to be industrialised, : For micro organisms to be industrialised, produce usable substance(s) or effect(s)
be available in pure culture
be genetically stable, but amenable to genetic manipulation
produce spores or other reproductive structures to allow easy inoculation
grow rapidly and produce product quickly in large-scale culture
grow in such a way that the cells are easily separated from the product
not be harmful to humans or agricultural plants and animals, etc. Slide 3: Food Industry Bio-Remediation Pharmaceutical Bio Technology Food Industry : Food Industry Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are used in the production of Acidophilus milk by adding the bacteria to (whole, low-fat or skimmed) milk under controlled conditions
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ellipsoideus are used to ferment grapes to make wine.
Coffee and Chocolate. Erwinia dissolvens, leuconostoc and lactobacillus species and yeast removes the tough outer coats. Fermentation : Fermentation Lets Recap! : Lets Recap! Fermentation is an energy producing process which does not require oxygen. This process is anaerobic in nature. two paths of obtaining energy : two paths of obtaining energy Some Products Of Fermentation : Some Products Of Fermentation Uses in BioTechnology : Uses in BioTechnology Choo Yi Teng Slide 11: Uses of microbes in biotechnology Production of insulin Bacteria cells can be genetically modified to produce hormones such as insulin for treating diabetes. Slide 12: Uses of microbes in biotechnology Production of bio-plastics Bacterial Polyester Fermentation
The sugar of harvested plants, such as corn, fuel the cellular processes of Bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha or other suitable bacterial species .The by-product of these cellular processes is the polymer which can be separated from the bacterial cells to produce plactic products. Slide 13: Uses of microbes in biotechnology Production of bio-plastics Lactic Acid Fermentation - Bacterial fermentation is used to produce lactic acid from corn starch or cane sugar. The lactic acid is oligomerised and then catalytically dimerised to make the cyclic lactide monomer and polymerised to polylactides. Slide 14: Uses of microbes in biotechnology Bacteria can produce useful enzymes. An example is the thermophilic bacterium which produces polymerase that can optimise polymerase chain reaction which may be extensively modified to perform a wide array of genetic manipulations which includes DNA cloning for sequencing, DNA-based phylogeny, or functional analysis of genes; the diagnosis of hereditary diseases; the identification of genetic fingerprints; and the detection and diagnosis of infectious diseases. Pharmaceutical Microbes : Pharmaceutical Microbes Shawn Tan Han Liang Vaccinations : Vaccinations What is a vaccine ?? A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains a small amount of disease causing microbe. The microbe stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the microbe as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. A vaccine is a substance which causes a person's body to produce antibodies against a disease without causing the disease. How is a vaccination created? : How is a vaccination created? Inactivated Vaccine How is a vaccination created? : How is a vaccination created? Another similar vaccine is the “subunit vaccine”,
where only the antigenic part of the virus, for
example the capsule, the flagella, or part of the
protein cell wall, is used in making the vaccine. How is a vaccination created? : How is a vaccination created? Cannot cause the disease in the host. Therefore
it is considered safe to use for immuno-
compromised patients. How is a vaccination created? : How is a vaccination created? Neither inactivated nor subunit vaccines induce the strongest immune responses and may therefore require a "booster" every few years to insure their continued effectiveness. How is a vaccination created? : How is a vaccination created? How is a vaccination created? : The weakened microbe can replicate, but cannot cause typical illness.
Since this is the closest thing to a real infection, these vaccines white cells, T cells, and B cells react strongly to the attack , creating a strong antibody response to attack microbes that hide in between cells or in the blood
T cells respond as if it were a real infection, with killer T cells getting rid of virus-infected cells and helper T cells signaling B cells to produce antibodies
Memory cells are created, so immunity is long-lasting. One vaccination is enough and no ‘booster’ is required. How is a vaccination created? How is a vaccination created? : How is a vaccination created? However, attenuated vaccines also carry the greatest risk because they can mutate back to the virulent form at any time. Such mutation would result in induction of the disease rather than in protection against it. For this reason, attenuated vaccines are not recommended for use in immuno-compromised patients. Immunisation in Singapore : Immunisation in Singapore Production of genetically engineered microbes : Production of genetically engineered microbes Production of drugs using the recombinant DNA technology. Insulin drugs
Steroids Other pharmaceutical uses of microbes : Other pharmaceutical uses of microbes Uses in Bio Remediation : Uses in Bio Remediation Andri Wirawan Bio-Remediation : Bio-Remediation It is a treatment process that uses microorganisms (yeast, fungi, or bacteria) to break down, or degrade, hazardous substances into less toxic or nontoxic substances.
It works by allowing microorganisms to break down the organic contaminants into harmless products -- mainly carbon dioxide and water. Slide 29: In a non-polluted environment, bacteria, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms are constantly at work breaking down organic matter.
Bioremediation works by providing these pollution-eating organisms with fertilizer, oxygen, and other conditions that encourage their rapid growth. Slide 31: There are two general categories of bioremediation, in situ and ex situ.
Ex situ bioremediation is the process of removing contaminated soil or water and treating it elsewhere.
In situ bioremediation involves treating the contaminated material at the site. However, it does have disadvantages… : However, it does have disadvantages… Most failures at bioremediation are due to failure of introduced organisms to thrive in the natural environment or a failure to access the contaminant. This could be due to:
Lack of nutrients
Organisms may feed on alternative substrates Slide 33: Sites that are unable to be cleaned with microbes include those with high metal concentrations (i.e. mercury) and inorganic salts. These types of compounds are toxic to the microbes. Here is a video on how ERP reacts with the oil spills : Here is a video on how ERP reacts with the oil spills … : … Slide 36: Making Gasoline from Bacteria
LS9, a company based in San Carlos,CA is working on "renewable petroleum" in which genetically engineered various bacteria,including E.coli,to custom-produce hydrogen chains.
The company employ tools from the field of synthetic biology to modify the genetic pathways that bacteria, plants, and animals use to make fatty acids, one of the main ways that organisms store energy.
Fatty acids are chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms strung together in a particular arrangement, with a carboxylic acid group made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen attached at one end. Take away the acid, and you're left with a hydrocarbon that can be made into fuel.
LS9's researchers also used standard recombinant DNA techniques to insert genes into the microbes. In other cases, they redesigned known genes with a computer and synthesized them. The resulting modified bacteria make and excrete hydrocarbon molecules that are the length and molecular structure the company desires.
ADVANTAGEThe process can yield crude oil without the contaminating sulfur that much petroleum out of the ground contains. Application of microorganisms in fuel : Application of microorganisms in fuel MICROBIAL FUEL CELL(MFC)
FROM WASTE TO WATER IN ONE_STEP!! WHAT IS IT? : WHAT IS IT? A microbial fuel cell (MFC) converts chemical energy, available in a bio-convertible substrate, directly into electricity. Process : Process Catalyst : bacteria
1) Bacteria convert a huge variety of organic compounds into CO2, water and energy.
2) The micro-organsimsuse the produced energy to grow and to maintain their metabolism.
3) using a MFC we can harvest a part of this microbial energy in the form of electricity. MFC : MFC sources : sources http://www.microbialfuelcell.org/www/index.php/Principles/