History of the Internet : History of the Internet We all use the Internet, but what is it? : We all use the Internet, but what is it? A network of computer networks
A descendent of Cold War defense technology
The most powerful distribution system in the history of civilization
A medium that melds text, audio and video through digitalization. How it works : How it works The Bigger Picture : The Bigger Picture World Internet Presence, 1991 : World Internet Presence, 1991 World Internet Presence, 1997 : World Internet Presence, 1997 Global cyberspace connections are made by satellites… : Global cyberspace connections are made by satellites… Or undersea cables… : Or undersea cables… Evolution of the Internet : Evolution of the Internet 1820s—First experiments in building calculating “engines” done by Charles Babbage.
1890—Herman Hollerith develops digital processing machine to compile U.S. Census.
1944—IBM builds electromechanical calculator to help calculate trajectories for weaponry and to break German and Japanese codes. Slide 10: 1957—Soviet Union ratchets up Cold War by launching first orbiting man-made satellite, Sputnik. U.S.
Defense Department creates ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) to apply technology to Cold War defense.
1961—IBM designs computer system that allows separate terminals to access same hardware, effectively inventing “remote access.” Slide 11: 1969—ARPANET computer network started. The network makes use of a packet-switching concept that would send messages in pieces and assemble them at their destination. Thus, no one path destroyed by nuclear attack could disable a message. Slide 12: 1972—At the First International Conference on Computers and Communication, ARPA scientists demonstrated their network, linking computers between 40 different locations.
First email sent between research facilities. Slide 13: 1974—Scientists at ARPA create a common language that allows different networks to communicate. It’s called transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP).
Other computer networks are devised:
Telenet (1974—commercial version of ARPANET)
Usenet (1979—focusing on email and newsgroups)
Bitnet (1981—links scientists across disciplines) Slide 14: 1976—Queen Elizabeth sends an email from Buckingham Palace.
1983—ARPANET abandoned by government for military research functions. Slide 15: 1984—William Gibson, a novelist, coins term “cyberspace,” using it in his sci-fi book Neuromancer. Slide 16: 1984—Domain name servers introduced (.com, .gov, .org, .edu), making Internet addresses easier to remember.
1985—NSFNet founded, which creates the Internet “backbone” (massive high-speed network pathways) Slide 17: 1985—San Francisco network the WELL (Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link) starts up as one of the first bulletin boards and chat sites. Effects of NSFNet : Effects of NSFNet Allowed increased Internet capacity.
Encouraged surge in Internet use. (By 1986, host computers numbered 5,000. In 1987, there were 28,000 hosts.)
Encouraged private Internet providers because commercial enterprises were excluded from NSFNet. Slide 19: 1989—CERN scientist Tim Berners-Lee designs World Wide Web as a way to share and retrieve research. He designs first browser and HTML.
1990—Internet hosts number 300,000.
First “search engine,” called Archie,
developed at McGill University, Montreal.
1991—NSF removes its restriction on private access to its backbone computers, a result of the end of the Cold War. Slide 20: 1991—Sen. Al Gore sponsors High Performance Computing Act, which funds research into improving the Internet infrastructure.
1992—Only 50 Websites exist in the world.
1993—Mark Andreesen invents Mosaic browser, which would lead to his company Netscape. His browser allows easier “surfing” of the Web. Slide 21: 1994—Proprietary computer services, such as Prodigy, Compuserve and AOL, provide Internet “gateways” for their subscribers.
1995—25,000 Web sites exist.
1996—More than 250,000 Web sites exist.
1997—E-Commerce gets underway and the start of .com retailers, such as Amazon.com. Slide 22: 2005—Google.com can search more than 8 billion Web pages. Where will the Internet take us? : Where will the Internet take us? All traditional media will use the Web for distribution. Some mainstream media, such as newspapers, may end up moving totally to “Cyberspace.”
Movies, books, music, TV will be increasingly downloadable from the Internet onto storage media, such as today’s DVDs.
The Internet will likely be as accessible as our phone network, as we use it from our cars, from pocket devices and from devices yet to be imagined. (Instead of taking our cars in for recall repairs, might patches downloadable from the Internet fix electronic components or monitor maintenance?) Slide 28: As more bandwidth becomes available, graphics and video will be the norm and text will take a backseat in presentation of content.
The voice of the individual among the world’s billions of human beings will be discernable.
Global, instantaneous distribution of information and culture will further “shrink” and homogenize the planet, making us a true “Global Village.”
The Internet will be ubiquitous, available everywhere wirelessly, like cell phone service.