Immunity and Immunizing Agents : Immunity and Immunizing Agents Dr. Muhammedirfan H. Momin
Community Medicine Department
Government Medical College
Surat. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM : THE IMMUNE SYSTEM We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better.
What happens when we get sick?
Why do we get better? What is immunity? : What is immunity? Immunity is the body's ability to fight off harmful micro-organisms –PATHOGENS- that invade it.
From the Latin word “immunis”—exempt
Immunity involves the antigen-antibody response
The immune system produces antibodies or cells that can deactivate pathogens. Slide 4: The immune system recognizes, attacks, destroys, and remembers each pathogen that enters the body. It does this by making specialized cells and antibodies that render the pathogens harmless.
For each type of pathogen, the immune system produces cells that are specific for that particular pathogen. Functions of the Immune System : Functions of the Immune System Immune System has 3 main functions:
Protect the body from pathogens
Remove dead or damaged tissue and cells
Recognize and remove abnormal cells that have abnormal cell growth and development (i.e. cancer cells) Slide 6: The Immune System - includes all parts of the body that help in the recognition and destruction of foreign materials. White blood cells, phagocytes and lymphocytes, bone marrow, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, and your spleen are all part of the immune system. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM : ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM The immune system is localized in several parts of the body
immune cells develop in the primary organs - bone marrow and thymus (yellow)
immune responses occur in the secondary organs (blue) ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM : ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus – glandular organ near the heart – where T cells learn their jobs
Bone marrow – blood-producing tissue located inside certain bones
blood stem cells give rise to all of the different types of blood cells
Spleen – serves as a filter for the blood
removes old and damaged red blood cells
removes infectious agents and uses them to activate cells called lymphocytes
Lymph nodes – small organs that filter out dead cells, antigens, and other “stuff” to present to lymphocytes
Lymphatic vessels – collect fluid (lymph) that has “leaked” out from the blood into the tissues and returns it to circulation Slide 11: White blood cells called macrophages trap and engulf cell debris and pathogens. Other white blood cells, called
Lymphocytes - are a type of white blood cell capable of producing a specific immune response to unique antigens. They produce antibodies which are chemicals that mark pathogens for destruction. Slide 12: Once a white cell has left the blood vessel and migrated to the enemy, the next job is to EAT the microbe.
Macrophages--engulf and destroy foreign substances, damaged cells, and cellular debris
The macrophage is a large phagocyte. A phagocyte is an eating cell (phago = "eating", cyte = "cell") which engulfs invaders. Macrophage and E. coli : Macrophage and E. coli ©Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc., www.DennisKunkel.com Lymphocytes : Lymphocytes Are the cells primarily responsible for the immune response
B-lymphocytes—B-cells Slide 15: Helper T cells: identifies the enemy and sends out the troops
Killer T cells: kills cells of the body that have been invaded by antigens
B cells: produces antibodies Slide 17: It has been estimated that during our lifetime, we will encounter a million foreign antigens capable of causing disease, and our bodies need the same amount of lymphocytes to defend against them.
There will always be a different type of lymphocyte for each possible antigen. Slide 18: When an antigen (Ag) is introduced into the human body, it stimulates the production of antibodies (Ab). Micro-organisms (and their toxins) and vaccines are antigens which evoke an immune response. The immune response is two types:-
1) The primary response: when an Ag is introduced into the body for the first time, there is a latent period of 3-10 days before Abs appear in the blood. A peak is quickly reached and the level of Abs gradually falls over a period of weeks or months. Slide 19: 2) The secondary (booster) response: the response to a booster dose of the same Ag differs in a number of ways from the primary response:
- has a shorter latent period and more rapid production of Abs.
- Abs are produced in abundance and a high level is maintained for a longer period.
- the Abs produced tend to have a greater capacity to bind to the Ags.
The accelerated response is attributed to the immunological memory. Active immunity : Active immunity Resistance developed in response to stimulus by an antigen (infecting agent or vaccine) and is characterized by the production of antibodies by the host. Slide 21: Active Immunity occurs when one makes his/her own antibodies. This type of immunity is long term. B. CELLULAR IMMUNITY: : B. CELLULAR IMMUNITY: Another way of establishing host resistance is through T-lymphocytes.
These cells synthesize and release pharmacologically active substances ("lymphokines") which can kill cells carrying foreign Ags.
T-lymphocytes also act against the invader by stimulation of macrophages.
This activity of the immune system is known as cell mediated immunity. The peak of activity occurs around the tenth day. Cell Mediated Immunity : Cell Mediated Immunity In cell mediated, the t-cells attach to foreign antigen cells and interact directly by cell to cell contact Passive immunity : Passive immunity Immunity conferred by an antibody produced in another host. It may be acquired naturally or artificially (through an antibody-containing preparation). PASSIVE IMMUNITY : PASSIVE IMMUNITY Antibodies (Y) are also found in breast milk.
The antibodies received through passive immunity last only several weeks. While your immune system was developing, you were protected by immune defenses called antibodies. These antibodies traveled across the placenta from the maternal blood to the fetal blood. Slide 26: Passive Immunity occurs when the antibodies come from some other source. This type of immunity is short term. Slide 27: A. Humoral Immunity:
This type of immunity is due to circulating Abs (Gamma - globulin's also called immunoglobulins).
On stimulation, B-lymphocytes divide and its daughter cells are transformed into plasma-cells.
The latter secrete the Abs into the circulation.
An antibody is a protein produced in response to an antigen. 5 Types of Antibodies : 5 Types of Antibodies Immunoglobulin G (IgG)—in plasma and tissue fluids; effective against virus, bacteria, & toxins; activate complement; babies get from mom through cord ?lasts 6 months to 1 yr
Immunoglobulin A (IgA)—in exocrine gland secretions (sweat glands); breast milk, tears, nasal fluid, bile, urine, etc. 5 Types Antibodies…. : 5 Types Antibodies…. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)—develops in response to bacteria
Immunoglobulin D (IgD)—found on surfaces of B-cells; important to B-cell activation
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)—in exocrine secretions along w IgA; ASSOCIATED WITH ALLERGIC REACTIONS Antigens : Antigens Antigens are macromolecules that elicit an immune response in the body. The most common antigens are proteins and polysaccharides.
Foreign substances that invade a host
Substances that induce the formation of antibodies.
Most are proteins or large polysaccharides from a foreign organism.
On the surface of all cells. Antigens : Antigens 4 phases associated with the immune response to an antigen:
1. Recognition of the invader
2. Amplification of the defenses (WBC)
3. Attack phase
4. Slowdown phase: number of defenders return to normal following the attack Immunizing agents : Immunizing agents Immunizing Agents : Immunizing Agents Vaccine: suspension of live or dead microorganism
Toxoid: bacterial toxin that has been rendered nontoxic
Immune globulin: sterile solution containing antibodies from human blood
Antitoxin: solution of antibodies derived from the serum of animals immunized from specific antigens Slide 35: Vaccination and Immunization
Vaccination and vaccine derive from vaccinia, the virus once used as smallpox vaccine.
Thus, vaccination originally meant inoculation with vaccinia virus to render a person immune to smallpox. Immunizations : Immunizations Immunization: process of inducing or providing immunity by administering an agent
Active: production of an antibody in response to the administration of a vaccine
Passive: temporary immunity by the administration of performed antibodies or antitoxins
Agents used include: Ig’s and antitoxins Slide 37: Vaccination: A vaccination is an injection of a weakened form of the actual antigen that causes the disease. The injection is too weak to make you sick, but your B lymphocytes will recognize the antigen and react as if it were the "real thing". Thus, you produce MEMORY cells for long term immunity. Live attenuated (avirulent) vaccines : Live attenuated (avirulent) vaccines Virulent pathogenic organisms are treated to become attenuated and avirulent but antigenic. They have lost their capacity to induce full-blown disease but retain their immunogenicity.
Live attenuated vaccines should not be administered to persons with suppressed immune response due to:
Leukemia and lymphoma
Receiving corticosteroids and anti-metabolic agents
pregnancy Inactivated (killed) vaccines : Inactivated (killed) vaccines Organisms are killed or inactivated by heat or chemicals but remain antigenic. They are usually safe but less effective than live attenuated vaccines. The only absolute contraindication to their administration is a severe local or general reaction to a previous dose. Polysaccharide and polypeptide (cellular fraction) vaccines : Polysaccharide and polypeptide (cellular fraction) vaccines They are prepared from extracted cellular fractions e.g. meningococcal vaccine from the polysaccharide antigen of the cell wall, the pneumococcal vaccine from the polysaccharide contained in the capsule of the organism, and hepatitis B polypeptide vaccine.
Their efficacy and safety appear to be high. Surface antigen (recombinant) vaccines. : Surface antigen (recombinant) vaccines. It is prepared by cloning HBsAg gene in yeast cells where it is expressed. HBsAg produced is then used for vaccine preparations.
Their efficacy and safety also appear to be high. HAZARDS OF IMMUNIZATION : HAZARDS OF IMMUNIZATION No immune response is entirely free from the risk of adverse reactions or remote squeal. The adverse reactions that may occur may be grouped under the following heads:
Reactions inherent to inoculation
Reactions due to faulty techniques
Reactions due to hypersensitivity
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