Signal Transduction

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Basics of Signal Transduction : 

Basics of Signal Transduction

What is signal transduction? : 

What is signal transduction?

Slide 3: 

Signaling is responsible for how cells can respond to their environment and how they can differentiate or change over time

Objectives : 

Objectives Know the basics concepts of signal transduction Know specific mechanisms Membrane Receptor mediated (very diverse group) G-protein coupled Ion channel-linked Enzyme linked (example will be Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) Receptors that link to proteases Non-membrane receptor mediated pathways NO pathway Steroid hormone receptors

Basic concepts : 

Basic concepts The same signal can induce different responses in different target cells Different combinations of signals induce different responses Responses can be fast or slow Signals are mediated by two types of receptors Signals are relayed and amplified

Slide 6: 

Signals get translated into cellular responses or changes in gene expression

Slide 7: 

Not all of the receptor needs to be bound to induce a response

Slide 8: 

Signals can act locally or at a distance

Basic types of signaling : 

Basic types of signaling

Slide 11: 

The same signal can produce a different response in different targets

Different combinations of signals induce different responses : 

Different combinations of signals induce different responses

Responses can be fast or slow : 

Responses can be fast or slow

Signals are mediated by two types of receptors : 

Signals are mediated by two types of receptors

Slide 15: 

Signals are amplified

Major components of signaling pathways : 

Major components of signaling pathways Signals Receptors G-proteins Protein kinases Protein phosphatases Second messenger producing components

Signaling is very conserved : 

The same machinery is used in many different signaling pathways Different cell types will use the same machinery for different purposes Signaling is very conserved

Slide 18: 

Proteins involved in signaling are conserved

What are signals? : 

What are signals? Extracellular and intracellular

Extracellular signals : 

Extracellular signals Physical Light, heat, touch, magnetic, electric Chemical Growth factors, hormones, nutrients, environmental cues Typically these initiate an action

Slide 21: 

No receptor - no response Receptors determine response

Intracellular signals : 

Intracellular signals We will focus on intracellular signals Secondary messengers Other types of signals (will see later) Typically these propagate or amplify an extracellular signal Some mediate internal signals

Slide 23: 

Small organic molecules as signals Calcium can also be a signal

Other types of signals : 

Other types of signals Changes in phosphorylation states Changes in ionic (Vm) composition Changes in what a protein is bound to Changes in protein structure

Extracellular signal receptors : 

Extracellular signal receptors And the machinery that transmits their signals

Membrane bound receptors come in different forms : 

Membrane bound receptors come in different forms

Machinery we will see : 

Machinery we will see G-proteins Protein kinases Protein phosphatases Second messenger producing components