Slide 1: 1 A PRESENTATION BY
M.Sc; MBA; LL.b; PGDCA; NELTS(CIEFL)
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
DISHA INSTITUTE OF
MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
RAIPUR (C.G) Slide 2: 2 FORENSIC SCIENCE
ROLE OF CHEMISTRY
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION FORENSICS (SHORTEN FORM) IS THE APPLICATION OF A BROAD SPECTRUM OF SCIENCES TO ANSWER QUESTIONS OF INTEREST TO THE LEGAL SYSTEM. THIS MAY BE IN RELATION TO A CRIME OR TO A CIVIL ACTION. SUBDIVISIONS OF FORENSIC SCIENCE : 4 SUBDIVISIONS OF FORENSIC SCIENCE CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC DNA ANALYSIS
QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
BRAIN MAPPING FINGER PRINT TECHNIQUE, FOOD POISONING (A LEADING CASE REPORT) & FORGING OF DOCUMENTS (A LEADING CASE REPORT) : 5 FINGER PRINT TECHNIQUE, FOOD POISONING (A LEADING CASE REPORT) & FORGING OF DOCUMENTS (A LEADING CASE REPORT) CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION : 6 CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION IDENTIFYING PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
TOOLS IF ANY FOUND NEAR TYRE TRACKS.
TOOL MARKS AT THE POINT OF ENTRY.
BLOOD ON GLASS FRAGMENTS.
CLOTHING FIBRES ON BROKEN WINDOW FRAME.
STANDARD BROKEN GLASS FRAGMENTS.
DUSTY FINGRPRINTS ON AIR CONDITIONER.
FINGERPRINTS ON DRINKING GLASS IN KITCHEN.
BLOOD ON BATHROOM FLOOR,SINKS OR TUB.
CUT TELEVISION ANTENNA WIRE.
CUT WIRES- PHONES, CABLES.
CIGARETTE BUTTS IF ANY.
LIPSTICK MARKS. MATERIALS REQUIRED : 7 MATERIALS REQUIRED 2-3 SPOONS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE/GYPSUM/PLASER OF PARIS/CHARCOAL ACTIVATED POWDER (E.MERCK,INDIA) AND NINHYDRIN REAGENT(1%).
ONE 3.5 LITRES ZIP-LOCK BAG.
A LARGE SPOON OR PAINT STIRRING STICK.
A 6-9 OUNCES OF WATER PER POUND ON GYPSUM/PLASTER OF PARIS.
A FORM ( A STRUCTURE OF CAST) FINGER PRINT TEST : 8 FINGER PRINT TEST Place a form around the impression.
Pour it in form with large spoon or stirring stick
Allow the impression to dry for 30 minutes.
Vital information like date, time, location etc. can be written if it is dry.
Carefully remove the cast.
Place the knife gently to cut unwanted portion.
Package the cast in plastic bag. Ensure it should not break.
Sent it to investigating agency. METHOD : 9 METHOD Prepare four copies of specimen.
First copy is examined thoroughly with naked eye.
Second set were examined and developed by using charcoal activated powder after refrigeration at different intervals such as 24 hrs,2wks, 4wks respectively.
Third set are examined by placing paper and glass slides and examined after regular intervals.
Fourth set of latent fingerprints are exposed to ESDA and photocopy machine process. WHY NINHYDRIN IS USED IN CRIME INVESTIGATION TESTS ? : 10 WHY NINHYDRIN IS USED IN CRIME INVESTIGATION TESTS ? GOOD QUALITY OF FINGER PRINT IS OBTAINED AS COMPARED TO POWDER.
EVEN IN DIFFERENT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS NINHYDRIN GIVES GOOD RESULT AS COMPARED TO WATER OR SOME OTHER SOLVENT.
INTENSITY AND CLARITY DECREASES WITH RESPECT TO TIME WITH OTHER MATERIAL AS COMPARED TO NINHYDRIN.
POWDER METHOD DOESN’T GIVE RESULT AFTER LAPSE OF SIX MONTHS OR MORE WHEREAS NINHYDRIN TEST DOES. WHY NINHYDRIN IS USED IN CRIME INVESTIGATION TESTS ? : 11 WHY NINHYDRIN IS USED IN CRIME INVESTIGATION TESTS ? AS COMPARED TO ELECTROSTATIC DEVELOPMENT APPARATUS AND PHOTOCOPIER MACHINE THE CLARITY OBTAINED WAS MUCH BETTER.
EVEN LONG TIME PRINTS CAN ALSO BE OBTAINED WITH NINHYDRIN. RESULT : 12 RESULT +++_ VERY CLEAR AND INTENSE.
++__ LESS CLEAR AND LOW INTENSE.
+ ___ NOT CLEAR BUT INTERPRETABLE.
-- ____ NEGATIVE. FINGERPRINT TECHNIQUE MOSTLY USED IN : 13 FINGERPRINT TECHNIQUE MOSTLY USED IN BANK ROBBERY,DACOITY
BOMB DISPOSABLE SQUADS
TRACING DNA- PROVE RELATIONSHIP LOBAN POISONINGA LEADING CASE REPORT : 14 LOBAN POISONINGA LEADING CASE REPORT Two patients were admitted in Hindu Rao Hospital, Delhi.
They consumed “Prashad” mixed with alcohol and loban. (Benzoin- C6H5CH(OH)COC6H5)
They died after two hours of ingestion of “Prashad”.
Postmortem report showed the presence of liquid material in stomach having smell of alcohol.
The internal organs were congested and brain showed cerebral oedema. SPECIMEN COLLECTION : 15 SPECIMEN COLLECTION Four exhibits i.e two viscera of two deceased persons, one bottle containing yellow coloured liquid having smell of alcohol and other yellowish-brown coloured powder (prashad) were forwarded by investigating agency for examination to the Forensic Science Laboratory, Delhi. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE : 16 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Curette apparatus was used for finding out the quantity of ethyl alcohol in blood sample of the deceased person.
Sublimation technique was used for the separation of sulphur from liquid sample and “Prashad”.
Loban in “Prashad”, liquid sample and viscera were separated by Total Alcoholic Extract method. All Chemicals used were of Merck A.R. grade. CONFIRMATORY TESTS : 17 CONFIRMATORY TESTS LEAD ACETATE TEST:
Acidify the Lassaigne’s extract with dil. acetic acid and then add a few drops of lead acetate, a black precipitate will be formed.
(CH3COO)2Pb + Na2S ? 2CH3COONa + PbS
Black ppt. CONFIRMATORY TESTS : 18 CONFIRMATORY TESTS SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE TEST
Add a few drops of freshly prepared dilute solution of sodium nitroprusside to the exract, the appearance of a purple colour confirms the presence of sulphur.
Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] + Na2S ? Na4[Fe(CN)5NOS]
(Violet) CONFIRMATORY TESTS : 19 CONFIRMATORY TESTS Thin Layer Chromatography technique was used for the confirmation of loban in the Total Alcoholic extracts of Viscera, blood samples of both deceased persons. CONFIRMATORY TESTS : 20 CONFIRMATORY TESTS TEST FOR CINNAMIC ACID : (C6H5CH=CHCOOH)
Sample + KMno4 (aq) ? Brown ppt
(disappearance of purple colour)
(INDICATES CINNAMIC ACID) CONFIRMATORY TESTS : 21 CONFIRMATORY TESTS TEST FOR BENZOIC ACID: (C6H5COOH)
Sample + FeCl3 (neutral) ? Buff coloured ppt.
(INDICATES BENZOIC ACID) RESULT : 22 RESULT Two viscera and two blood samples were found to contain ethyl alcohol and loban. The alcohol concentration in blood in these two cases were found to be 80%.
The “Prashad” powder was found to contain mixture of sulphur and loban.
The “Prashad” powder was found to contain Benzoic Acid and Cinnamic Acid, which are the constituents of loban. CONCLUSION : 23 CONCLUSION DEATH MAY BE DUE TO SYNERGIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOL AND LOBAN. PROPERTIES : 24 PROPERTIES SOLUBILITY: Loban is soluble in ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol and other organic solvents.
SOLVENT SYSTEM: Ethyl Acetate : Methanol : Ammonia (85:15:15)
SPRAY REAGENT: 20% Sulphuric acid in methanol.Brown coloured spots of standard loban were seen and tallied with exhibit sample.
Rf VALUE: 0.826 PUNISHMENT UNDER I.P.C : 25 PUNISHMENT UNDER I.P.C Under section 272 of IPC :Whoever adulterates any article of food or drink, so as to make such article noxious as food or drink, or knowing it to be likely that the same will be sold/used as food or drink, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to for life and shall also be liable to fine.
The offence is cognizable, non-bailable and triable by Court of session. FRAUDS AND MANIPULATION OF DOCUMENTS : 26 FRAUDS AND MANIPULATION OF DOCUMENTS PRINCIPLE : PRINCIPLE “NO PERSON SIGNS TWICE EXACTLY ALIKE” GENUINE SIGNATURE HAVE THE FOLLOWING PECULARITIES : 28 GENUINE SIGNATURE HAVE THE FOLLOWING PECULARITIES SIGNATURE/WRITING WILL NOT BE DRAWING.
THE LINE QUALITY WILL BE SMOOTH, FORCEFUL AND RHYTHMIC.
NATURAL VARIATIONS IN LETTERS, WORDS AND DIGITS.
USUALLY ILLEGIBILITY, PEN FAILURE, PEN LIFTS AND THE LIKE. BASIC EQUIPMENTS TO VERIFY DOCUMENT/SIGNATURE : 29 BASIC EQUIPMENTS TO VERIFY DOCUMENT/SIGNATURE A MAGNIFYING LENS WITH INBUILT ILLUMINATION
CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES CAPABLE OF TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS UPTO 1:1 SIZE
A GOOD SOURCE OF LIGHT
AN X-RAY MACHINE
AN ULTRA VIOLET LAMP
A TRANSPARENT GRAPH PLATE FRAUDS AND MANIPULATION : 30 FRAUDS AND MANIPULATION FORGED SIGNATURE
FRAUDELENT DOCUMENT WITH
(GENUINE SIGNATURE) FORGED SIGNATURE (NON-GENUINE SIGNATURE) : 31 FORGED SIGNATURE (NON-GENUINE SIGNATURE) SIGNATURE OF FICTITIOUS PERSON
TO IMITATE THE GENUINE SIGNATURE
GUIDED HAND SIGNATURE
SIGNATURE THROUGH SCANNING,XEROX,SEAL(S) ETC.
SIGNATURE THROUGH TRICKERY ORIGINAL FORGED : 32 ORIGINAL FORGED ORIGINAL FORGED : 33 ORIGINAL FORGED VIEW OF THUMB IMPRESSION : 34 VIEW OF THUMB IMPRESSION A TRACED FORGERY IS COMPARED WITH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING METHODS : 35 A TRACED FORGERY IS COMPARED WITH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING METHODS SUPERIMPOSABLE TECHNIQUE/ TRANSPARENCY/BUTTER PAPER IN PRESENCE OF LIGHT.IF THE DIMENSIONS ARE SIMILAR IT IS FORGERY.
PHOTOGRAPH TECHNIQUE: UNDER DIFFERENT PROJECTIONS EXAMINATION IS DONE UNDER DIFFERENT ANGLES.
RULER METHOD: GENUINE & FORGED DOCUMENTS ARE PLACED SIDE BY SIDE AND MEASURED FRAUDULENT DOCUMENT : 36 FRAUDULENT DOCUMENT ALTERED
MUTILATED, TORN OR CHARRED
COUNTERFEITED ALTERED DOCUMENT : 37 ALTERED DOCUMENT ERASURE (DELETION)
ADDITION/SUBSTITUTION MUTILATED,TORN OR CHARRED : 38 MUTILATED,TORN OR CHARRED DOCUMENT DAMAGED BY WATER
STAINED,SOILED AND SMOKED DOCUMENT
WRITING OFFSETS,FOREIGN TRACES
DOCUMENT WITH FOLDS
CHARRED DOCUMENTS COUNTERFEIT DOCUMENT : 39 COUNTERFEIT DOCUMENT XEROX
HOLOGRAM, WAFER, STICKER ETC. FRAUDULENT DOCUMENT WITH GENUINE SIGNATURE : 40 FRAUDULENT DOCUMENT WITH GENUINE SIGNATURE SIGNATURE OF FORMER PRIME MINISTER SHRI CHANDRA SHEKHAR ORIGINAL FORGED : 41 SIGNATURE OF FORMER PRIME MINISTER SHRI CHANDRA SHEKHAR ORIGINAL FORGED A LEADING CASE : 42 A LEADING CASE IN THE HONOURABLE HIGH COURT OF UTTAR PRADESH A LITIGATION WAS FILED AGAINST AN ACCUSED NAMED MR.RAHUL SHARMA AGE 24 S/O MR.A.R.SHARMA, RESIDENT OF CHANDAUSI.
IN THIS CASE MR.V.C.MISHRA WAS THE QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINER WAS PERMITTED BY THE HONORABLE COURT TO INSPECT THE FILE AND TAKE PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE DISPUTED AND ADMITTED SIGNATURES OF RAHUL SHARMA. A LEADING CASE : 43 A LEADING CASE HE ALTERED THE MARKS OF HIS MARKSHEET OF B.E AND FORGELY SIGNED AS OF HONOURABLE VICE-CHANCELLOR.
HE WAS APPOINTED IN U.P GOVT. SERVICE AFTER FOUR YEARS LATER HE WAS ASKED TO SUBMIT THE PHOTOCOPY OF MARKSHEET. ON SUSPICION, AND INQUIRY PROCEDURE HIS MARKSHEET WAS THOROUGHLY EXAMINED & VERIFIED. A LEADING CASE : 44 A LEADING CASE AFTER THE EXAMINATION IT WAS PROVED IN THE COURT OF LAW 6 DISPUTED SIGNATURES WERE THE PRODUCTS OF TRACED FORGERY.
HONOURABLE VICE CHANCELLOR SIGNATURE WAS VERIFIED AND FOUND DIFFERENT.
AT LAST MR.RAHUL SHARMA WAS PROVED GUILTY. HE WAS REMOVED FROM SERVICES AND SEVERE PENAL ACTION WAS UNDER AGAINST HIS PROCEEDINGS. RESULT : 45 RESULT AN EXACT MATHEMATICAL MEASUREMENT OF THE HEIGHT, WIDTH,LENGTH BETWEEN TWO SELECTED POINTS WERE WORKED OUT IN THE SIGNATURES, SHOWING THERE WERE EVIDENCES OF TRACING.
ALSO THE DEFECTIVE LINE QUALITY AND INDENTATION MARKS ON THE REVERSE SURFACE WERE ENOUGH TO PROVE THE GUILT. CONCLUSION : 46 CONCLUSION NOBODY CAN DISGUISE HIS/HER SIGNATURE OR HANDWRITING.
EVERY BODY HAS HIS OWN INDIVIDUAL TRAITS IN THE SIGNATURES/WRITING WHICH IN TURN HELPS IN FIXING THE IDENTITY OF THE PERSON SIGNED THE DOCUMENT.
PEOPLE IN ATTEMPT TO COPY, THE SIZE SHAPE,SLANT ETC WILL DIFFER HOW SOEVER MASTERLY PERFORMED THE TRICK. PUNISHMENT UNDER I.P.C : 47 PUNISHMENT UNDER I.P.C Under Section 465 of IPC: Whoever commits forgery shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.
It is non-cognizable, and bailable under the court of session. EPILOGUE : 48 EPILOGUE Forensic science encompasses many independent fields of independent investigation and is considered to stand between the natural and practical sciences, between lawyers and scientists and between police and law.
Forensic science carries evidence from crime scene to the laboratory and from there to the court of law, with the ultimate aim of delivering justice to the victim.
With it, it is now possible to even photocopied document, type writings, size of papers, opacity of the papers, its colour, brightness, the water marks in the rupee note, the forged signatures. REFERENCES : 49 REFERENCES Gardner, R (2002). Handwriting Secrets Explained. Chancellor Press UK.
B.R.Sharma (2003).Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and Trails. 4th edition. Universal Law publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., Delhi 562-737.
Justice Y V Chandrachud & V R Manohar Ratan lal & Dhiraj lal Series Wadhwa & Company Nagpur.
V Veeraraghavan,(2006) Handbook of Forensic Sciences. Selective and Scientific books, N.Delhi THANK YOU : 50 THANK YOU