Rise of Totalitarianism WWII Legacy

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By: MaYiQin (104 month(s) ago)

Hi, this is a very very good PowerPoint. Thank you for putting it together. It will be of great benefit to teach European History to my Chinese Students.

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Slide 1: 

The rise of totalitarianism & its impact on the 20th century

Interwar Period:Years of Crisis1919-1939 : 

Interwar Period:Years of Crisis1919-1939

Slide 3: 

The Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations No control of major conflicts. No progress in disarmament. No effective military force.

Hyperinflation—German’s Economy in Shambles after WWI : 

Hyperinflation—German’s Economy in Shambles after WWI

Weimar Republic: Decadence & Corruption in 1920’s Berlin : 

Weimar Republic: Decadence & Corruption in 1920’s Berlin Germany was taken over by corruption, chaos and Communist uprisings. Decadence and anarchy reigned and everyone seemed to be at war with one another. In addition the state was under a constant threat, being unarmed and unsafe in the neighbor of steadily strengthening Soviet Union. This was the situation when the National Socialists began their struggle.

Slide 6: 

The Great Depression “Brother, can you spare a dime?”

The Great Depression : 

The Great Depression Causes Long-Term World economies connected Huge war debts Europe relies on American loans & investments Prosperity built on borrowed money Short-Term US stock market crashes Banks demand loan repayments Banking system collapses American trade declines / no longer loaning $ Effects Short-term Millions unemployed Citizens lose faith in democracy and capitalism Nations turn toward authoritarian leaders Gov’ts take emergency action to save their economies Long-term Nazis take control of Germany Fascism comes to power in other countries Social welfare programs Japan expands into East Asia WWII begins

Slide 8: 

Treaty of Versailles Black Tuesday 1929- stock market crashes Great Depressionduring 1930s Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control-For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism Total Controlof State by aDictator Totalitarianism

Slide 9: 

Totalitarianism What is it? Describe its characteristics…

Slide 10: 

Totalitarianism Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state(political, military, economy, social, cultural) Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) Strict controls and laws Military state (secret police, army, military) Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters) One leader (dictator); charismatic Total conformity of people to ideas and leader Terror and Fear

Slide 11: 

*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour Totalitarianism

Slide 13: 

Communism I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953. What is Communism? LEFT WING based on theory by Karl Marx revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society” state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership) Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism

Totalitarianism: Stalin’s Case Study : 

Stalin takes firm control of the government. He develops a personality cult around him, near-deifies Lenin and makes himself Lenin’s successor, and eliminates enemies. Stalin was also good at changing history. CONTROLLING HISTORY=POWER Totalitarianism: Stalin’s Case Study

Slide 15: 

There’s Trotsky at a Lenin speech. Where’d he go?

Slide 16: 

There’s Trotsky again with Lenin. Where’d he go?

Slide 17: 

There’s secret police chief Nikolai Yezhov walking along the Volga with Stalin. Where’d he go? (he had been executed)

Slide 18: 

"Don't chat! Chatting leads to treason"

Slide 19: 

Stalin centralizes the government and the economy, making it a command economy. COLLECTIVIZATION: The process of abolishing private ownership of land in favor of state or (supposedly) communal ownership. Following the difficulties in obtaining agricultural products in the Soviet Union in 1927–8, Stalin led the party towards full collectivization of the peasantry in 1929 The central committee decides how much of what will be made when. Shortages ensue. Totalitarianism: Stalin’s Case Study

Slide 20: 

Peasants are forced onto collective farms, blaming kulaks (wealthy landowning farmers) for problems. Collectivization was an initial disaster. Crop yields were way down and peasants resisted. They were forced to give up property, couldn’t sell excess grain, and were making less than before. Many engaged in sabotage. Many who resisted were resettled in labor camps (gulags), where 5 out of 6 of them died. The low grain production was also used to punish people. In Ukraine, where resistance was high, grain was forcibly taken and withheld from the people. Millions die of starvation… on purpose. Stalin used it as a tool to empty out the Ukraine some. Totalitarianism: Stalin’s Case Study

Slide 21: 

Stalin also recognizes that the U.S.S.R. is behind the times. So he rapidly industrializes the country with his FIVE YEAR PLANS. The five year plans were harsh. Everybody had a quota. Failure to fulfill your quota, say if you were miner, could result in treason charges and a trip to the gulag. While the crash industrialization works, and quite well (although never as well as planned), it helped cause famine and it’s almost impossible to know how successful it was. The Soviet Union’s statistics were not to be trusted. It does put the U.S.S.R. in a much better position at the start of WWII than at the start of WWI Totalitarianism: Stalin’s Case Study

Slide 22: 

GULAGS

Slide 23: 

The economy was also built on theft and forced labor. The gulags were a thriving enterprise under Stalin and the labor of prisoners was used for all sorts of building projects. People were sent to the gulag for either common or political offenses. The latter got it the worst. Conditions were horrible and many were simply worked to death. Totalitarianism: Stalin’s Case Study

Slide 24: 

Fascism I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943. What is Fascism? RIGHT WING intense nationalism and elitism totalitarian control interests of the state more important than individual rights maintain class system and private ownership Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax

Ideas of Mussolini : 

Ideas of Mussolini Mussolini argued that citizens were empowered when they were subordinated to the state. By blindly obeying the state, they helped the state thrive, which benefited them. To Mussolini, this distinguished the fascist state from repressive authoritarian governments, which sought to crush people, & not empower them.

Fascist Principles : 

Fascist Principles Anti-individualistic Anti-democratic Anti-egalitarian (fairness, equality) Anti-capitalist Anti-pacifist Anti-internationalist Anti-liberal Anti-intellectual

Slide 27: 

Nazism I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945. What is Nazism? extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race” belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them Supported by middle class, business leaders, military

Nazism : 

Nazism Fascism taken to its extreme form. Racist and anti-Semitic elements that did not appear in Italian fascism.

Adolph Hitler : 

Adolph Hitler Hitler considered himself superior, even though he was a drifter & failed artist during his youth. A corporal during WWI, he was devastated by Germany’s loss & blamed it on the Jews. He started his political career at age 30, joining the German Workers Party. He had exceptional speaking skills & came to be revered by others in the party. He was chosen its leader in 1921, and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party.

Mein Kampf (1924) : 

Mein Kampf (1924) The title means My Struggle, and it expounds on Hitler’s anti-Semitism, worship of power, scorn for morality, and plan for world domination. Hitler wrote it in prison after a failed attempt to overthrow the German government

Slide 31: 

Nazi Controls

Slide 32: 

GESTAPO: the Secret State Police SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east Wehrmacht: German army HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth Einstazgruppen: Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units Volk: all inclusive concept of nation, people and race, implying the superiority of German culture and race; led to policy of racial superiority Nazi Military State

Slide 36: 

This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. “The Eternal Jew”Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.

Steps to WWII : 

Steps to WWII Was the Treaty of Versailles truly the cause of World War II? How did appeasement contribute to World War II? Why did the League of Nations fail? What role did “isolationism” play? Could Hitler have been ‘contained’ at any time prior to 1939? How did World War II begin? What were the steps to war?

Policy of Appeasement : 

Policy of Appeasement Appeasement willingness to surrender to an aggressors’ demands to avoid war reduction of international tensions through removal of causes of friction; concessions to disgruntled nations to lessen their tendency to take aggressive actions How was it used prior to World War II? Acceptance that Hitler could not be stopped and needed to be negotiated with (even at the expense of the smaller independent countries) Accepted because of sympathy and guilt felt by Britain and USA of unjust Treaty of Versailles Reality Blindness to true nature of Hitler’s agenda program for Eastern Europe From W. Robson, “Twentieth-Century History”, 1973. There had been nothing weak or foolish about the attitude of the Western leaders. They tried to settle differences by discussion and conciliation, methods that had been highly successful in the 1920s. Their failure was due to the fact that Hitler took consolation for weakness and found that he could get his own way. He could have been stopped earlier but only at the risk of war. Discussion was the method of gentlemen, which explains why Chamberlain and the Western leaders favored it and Hitler did not.

Slide 40: 

U. S. Neutrality Acts:1934, 1935, 1937, 1939 U.S. practiced a foreign policy of isolationism---remain out of the affairs of nations outside of North America

Slide 41: 

Germany Invades the RhinelandMarch 7, 1936

Slide 42: 

Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936 The “Pact of Steel”

Hitler at the 1936 Berlin Olympics : 

Hitler at the 1936 Berlin Olympics African-American Jesse Owens became the first to win 4 gold medals in track and field---much to Hitler’s contempt

Slide 44: 

The Spanish Civil War: 1936 - 1939 Francisco Franco: Becomes dictator of Spain / ally of Hitler

Slide 45: 

“Guernica” by Pablo Picasso The bombing of Guernica (April 26, 1937) was an aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica, causing widespread destruction and civilian deaths during the Spanish Civil War. The raid by planes of the German Luftwaffe "Condor Legion" and the Italian Fascist Aviazione Legionaria was called Operation Rügen. Western countries viewed Guernica as an example of ‘terror bombing.‘ This is the subject of Picasso’s famous anti-war painting.

Slide 46: 

The Japanese Invasionof China, 1937

Slide 47: 

The Austrian Anschluss, 1938 Within three years of the rise to power of the Nazi Party in Germany and his appointment as Chancellor, Adolf Hitler had begun to rearm Germany and had marched his troops back into the demilitarized Rhineland. These actions were in breach of the Treaty of Versailles, but produced no retaliation from Great Britain and France, and the Nazi leader felt that he could safely embark on military aggression against tiny Austria. After first destabilizing its government, Hitler invaded Austria in 1938. Many Austrians welcomed the Nazis and were content to see their country incorporated into Germany.

Slide 48: 

The “Problem” of theSudetenland Appeasement: England and France agree to let Hitler take part of Czechoslovakia in 1938 and in exchange Hitler promises to stop further aggressive actions.

Slide 49: 

Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938 Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain

Slide 50: 

Czechoslovakia Becomes Part of the Third Reich: 1939

Slide 51: 

The War Begins!

Slide 52: 

Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939 Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”]—Hitler’s military strategy

Slide 53: 

Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, 1940 The Tripartite Pact

Slide 54: 

European Theater of Operations

Slide 55: 

France SurrendersJune, 1940

Slide 56: 

Now Britain Is All Alone

Churchill Addresses the Nation after the Fall of France : 

Churchill Addresses the Nation after the Fall of France One of the most famous speeches of the 20th century—Churchill rallies the British to prepare for the battle to come “This was their finest hour.”

The “Blitz”: Nazi’s Bomb London : 

The “Blitz”: Nazi’s Bomb London Stunned by British resistance Hitler ended the Battle of Britain on May 10, 1941

Slide 59: 

Operation Barbarossa:Hitler’s Biggest Mistake Hitler didn’t learn anything from Napoleon’s winter defeat in Russia in 1812---near Moscow in winter of 1941—Hitler orders no retreat to his soldiers in summer uniforms—2 year later 500,000 Germans had been killed Hitler gained nothing except the wrath of Joseph Stalin

Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941 : 

Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941 F.D.R.: “a day which will live in infamy”

Slide 61: 

The “Big Three” Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin

Slide 62: 

The Allies Liberate Rome:June 5, 1944

Slide 63: 

Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [“Operation Overlord”]

Slide 64: 

D-Day (June 6, 1944)

Slide 65: 

Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944) Higgins Landing Crafts German Prisoners

Slide 66: 

The Liberation of Paris:August 25, 1944 French leader Charles De Gaulle in Triumph!

Slide 67: 

Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945 The Führer’s Bunker Cyanide & Pistols Mr. & Mrs. Hitler

Slide 68: 

V-E Day (May 8, 1945)

Slide 69: 

Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Kristallnacht—November 9, 1938—”Night of Broken Glass”—Jewish shops, synagogues, homes violently attacked—after a Jewish teenager from Germany shot a German diplomat in Paris—beginning of mass emigration of Jews and the forced removal to Jewish ghettos After killing over a million Jews already, Hitler began the “Final Solution” in 1942 with the building of concentration camps—6 million Jewish people from Germany and other conquered nations were executed in the camps

Holocaust : 

Holocaust The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C. defines the Holocaust as: “the state-sponsored systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945.” The Nazi leaders used this euphemism to describe the policy: "The Final Solution to the Jewish Problem."

Slide 71: 

Crematoria at Majdanek Entrance to Auschwitz:Work Makes You Free Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

Slide 72: 

Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Slave Labor at Buchenwald Eli Wiesel

Slide 73: 

Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen

Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust—5 million killed : 

Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust—5 million killed The Nazis also persecuted and killed Gypsies, non-Jewish Polish people, homosexuals, and people with disabilities for racial purity reasons. They killed political dissidents, Soviet prisoners of war, and other radicals for political reasons.

Pacific Theater: U.S. vs. Japan : 

Pacific Theater: U.S. vs. Japan Aircraft carriers were central to the war effort in the Pacific

Bataan Death March—War Crime : 

Bataan Death March—War Crime Japanese considered it dishonorable to surrender—contempt for war prisoners and treated them brutally Bataan Death March—April 1942—Phillippines-26,000 U.S. & Filipino POWS died from starvation, dehydration, torture exhaustion, executions– march route was 100 miles Beheading of U.S. pilot

General Douglas MacArthur:Commander of Allied Forces in Pacific : 

General Douglas MacArthur:Commander of Allied Forces in Pacific Battle of Iwo Jima: March 1945 Battle of Guadalcanal 1942-43—6 months of fighting on land and sea—one of the bloodiest battles of the war

The Atomic Bomb : 

The Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project—approved by FDR—secret program that developed the first atomic bomb—deadline to beat the Germans However—the war in Europe was over before the bombs were ready President Truman decided to end the war in the Pacific by demonstrating the effects of a nuclear bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan were bombed August 6 & August 9, 1945 70,000 killed instantly 140,000 dead by end of 1945 Ground temperatures—7,000 degrees

Biggest Legacy of WWII:The Cold War : 

Biggest Legacy of WWII:The Cold War

Slide 80: 

The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL ? spread world-wide Communism GOAL ? “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. Game Plans: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] ? “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

Slide 81: 

The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

Slide 82: 

The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?” The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

Slide 83: 

USSR Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956 De-Stalinization Program

Slide 84: 

Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

The Korean War: A “Police Action” of the United Nations (1950-1953) : 

The Korean War: A “Police Action” of the United Nations (1950-1953) Kim Il-Sung—the communist leader of North Korea—today his son rules the nation

Slide 86: 

Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.

Slide 87: 

The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) CheckpointCharlie

Slide 88: 

Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!

Slide 89: 

Khruschev Embraces Castro,1961

Slide 90: 

Vietnam War: 1965-1973 U.S. must contain the spread of communism—protect South Vietnam from communist China and North Vietnam—a disastrous war for the U.S.

Berlin Wall Comes Down 1989 / USSR Collapses 1991 : 

Berlin Wall Comes Down 1989 / USSR Collapses 1991 Ronald Reagan in Berlin in 1987 calling for Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to “TEAR DOWN THIS WALL!”

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