Antietam Battlefield

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Antietam Battlefield Maria Velarde Mike Vellutini John Schonwald

Changing the Reason for the War : 

Changing the Reason for the War Antietam Battlefield

Lee’s Maryland Campaign : 

Lee’s Maryland Campaign The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the Civil War. Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s first invasion of the North was repulsed by General George McClellan and the Army of the Potomac, who moved to intercept Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia and eventually attacked it near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single day battle in American history.

The Major PlayersThe South The North : 

The Major PlayersThe South The North Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson George McClellan Ambrose Burnside

Antietam 17 September 1862 : 

Antietam 17 September 1862

Scenes Around Sharpsburg : 

Scenes Around Sharpsburg Union Campsite Antietam Bridge, on Sharpsburg and Boonsboro Turnpike looking up stream. Antietam Bridge, looking across stream. Group Artillery Officers on Battlefield of Antietam.

Scenes Around Sharpsburg : 

Scenes Around Sharpsburg View on Battlefield of Antietam. General Hooker's Headquarters during the Battle of Antietam. Newcomer's Mill, near Antietam. General Caldwell and Staff, on Battlefield of Antietam.

Scenes Around Sharpsburg : 

Scenes Around Sharpsburg Burnside Bridge, Antietam, looking up stream. Burnside Bridge present day. Sunken Road/Bloody Lane. Sunken Road/ Bloody Lane Present Day.

Scenes Around Sharpsburg : 

Scenes Around Sharpsburg Forge Scene at General McClellan's Headquarters, Sharpsburg. Colonel Moorehead, One Hundred and Sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, on Battlefield of Antietam. Sharpsburg, Maryland Lookout

The Campaign : 

The Campaign Sequence of Events Antietam CampaignEvents at South Mountain and Harper's Ferry Sept. 4: Lee's army crosses into Maryland at White's Ferry. Sept. 7. Lee concentrates his army at Frederick before sending Stonewall Jackson to capture Harper's Ferry. Sept. 4-7 McClellan resumes command of the Federal army and advances cautiously to find Lee and cover Washington. Sept. 11: D. H. Hill's Confederates guard the passes in South Mountain while Longstreet watches to the north at Hagerstown. Sept. 11-12: Jackson attacks the Federal garrison at Martinsburg and drives them towards Harper's Ferry. Sept. 13: McClellan reaches Frederick and discovers Lee's plans in the mislaid Confederate Order 191. Sept. 13-15: Jackson seals the southern exit to Harper's Ferry and bombards the Federal garrison. Sept. 13-15: McLaws Confederate division captures Maryland Heights, cutting off a Federal retreat northwards. Sept. 13-15: Walker's Confederate division occupies Loudon Heights and completes the cordon around Mile's division. The Federals surrendered 12,000 troops at Harper's Ferry on the 15th. Sept. 14: Federal I and IX Corps capture Turner's Gap from D. H. Hill and Longstreet, forcing a Confederate Retreat. Sept. 14: A portion of McLaw's Confederates delay Franklin's Federal VI Corps at Crampton Gap. Sept. 15: With the imminent fall of Harper's Ferry, Lee determines to make a stand along Antietam Creek at Sharpsburg.

Timeline Day of Battle : 

Timeline Day of Battle Events at Antietam (Sharpsburg) Sept. 17: 6 am: Hooker's Federal Corps begins the attack but his left bogs down under artillery fire from Nicodemus Hill. 7 am: Hood's Confederates counterattack and stop I Corps' advance at the Miller cornfield. 7:30-9 am: Mansfield's XII Corps attacks to the Dunker Church but fresh Confederate reinforcements drive them back. 10 am: Sedgwick's division of Sumner's II Corps attacks into the West Woods but is flanked and repulsed with heavy losses. 1 pm: Richardson's and French's division of Sumner's II Corps capture Bloody lane and breach Lee's center. 10 am-1 pm: Burnside's IX Corps seize the bridge across the Antietam after repeated attempts to cross. 1 pm: Rodman's division of IX Corps wades through Snavely's Ford and flanks Toombs' Confederates above the bridge. 3 pm: Burnside launches a general assault pushing Longstreet's Confederates back to the outskirts of Sharpsburg. 4 pm: A.P. Hill's Confederate division arrives from Harper's Ferry just in time to cripple Burnside's advance with a counterattack against the Federal left flank. Source: "The Atlas of the Civil War" by James M. McPherson

Washington Post Report : 

Washington Post Report The Washington StarFriday, September 19, 1862 The War in Maryland Full Particulars of the Battles of Tuesday and Wednesday- The Result Considered a Decided Union Success

The Battle’s Aftermath : 

The Battle’s Aftermath Dunker’s Church Loading the bodies Confederate bodies Hagerstown Road. Image depicts the grave of John A. Clark, 7MI, and an unburied Confederate soldier.

Aftermath of the Battle : 

Aftermath of the Battle Confederate Wounded, after the Battle of Antietam, at Smith's Barn; Dr. A. Hurd, Fourteenth Indiana Volunteers, in attendance. Ditch on the right wing, where Kimball's Brigade fought. Confederate Soldiers, as they fell inside the fence, on the Hagerstown road, at the Battle of Antietam. Burying the Dead, after the Battle of Antietam.

Medical Care During the Civil War : 

Medical Care During the Civil War Federal loss was 67,058 killed and 43,012 died of wounds; of Confederates, 53,873 killed, and 194,026 was the number of killed and wounded (140,153 wounded) Wounded were carried from the battlefield on stretchers carried by men, and mule and horse stretchers. 1 in 45 chance dying in battle compared to 1 in 18 to decease Field ambulance were used for the first time on a large scale. 2-3 per wagon. No official Medical Corps assembled at the beginning of the war. Two thousand women served as nurses A medical [black] bag weighed 20 lbs

The Turning Point : 

The Turning Point On Jan. 1, 1863, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln declared free all slaves residing in territory in rebellion against the federal government. This Emancipation Proclamation actually freed few people. It did not apply to slaves in border states fighting on the Union side; nor did it affect slaves in southern areas already under Union control. Naturally, the states in rebellion did not act on Lincoln's order. But the proclamation did show Americans-- and the world--that the civil war was now being fought to end slavery. Lincoln had been reluctant to come to this position. A believer in white supremacy, he initially viewed the war only in terms of preserving the Union. As pressure for abolition mounted in Congress and the country, however, Lincoln became more sympathetic to the idea. On Sept. 22, 1862, he issued a preliminary proclamation announcing that emancipation would become effective on Jan. 1, 1863, in those states still in rebellion. Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in America--this was achieved by the passage of the 13TH Amendment to the Constitution on Dec. 18, 1865--it did make that accomplishment a basic war goal and a virtual certainty.

Emancipation Proclamation : 

Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." Original first page of Proclamation. President Lincoln meeting with General McClellan @ Antietam on 22 September 1862, date of preliminary Proclamation.

Emancipation Continued : 

Emancipation Continued Despite this expansive wording, the Emancipation Proclamation was limited in many ways. It applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched in the loyal border states. It also expressly exempted parts of the Confederacy that had already come under Northern control. Most important, the freedom it promised depended upon Union military victory. Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not immediately free a single slave, it fundamentally transformed the character of the war. After January 1, 1863, every advance of federal troops expanded the domain of freedom. Moreover, the Proclamation announced the acceptance of black men into the Union Army and Navy, enabling the liberated to become liberators. By the end of the war, almost 200,000 black soldiers and sailors had fought for the Union and freedom.

Emancipation’s Meaning : 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/emancipation_proclamation/ From the first days of the Civil War, slaves had acted to secure their own liberty. The Emancipation Proclamation confirmed their insistence that the war for the Union must become a war for freedom. It added moral force to the Union cause and strengthened the Union both militarily and politically. As a milestone along the road to slavery's final destruction, the Emancipation Proclamation has assumed a place among the great documents of human freedom. Emancipation’s Meaning

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