Lec #1 - Scope of electrotherapy 1

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Introduction to Electrotherapy, Physical Agents and Thermal Physics : 

Introduction to Electrotherapy, Physical Agents and Thermal Physics Roma Rosas D. Veron, MPH, PTRP

Objectives : 

Objectives Identify the scope of electrotherapy and the corresponding electrotherapeutic modalities Know the various temperature scales and learn how to convert one temperature scale into another Discuss the modes of heat transfer Acquaint with the basic physical concepts concerning thermal energy with biophysics

Scope of Electrotherapy : 

Scope of Electrotherapy ELECTROTHERAPY Low Freq Currents Medium Freq Currents High Freq Currents Phototherapy Electrodiagnosis Biofeedback

Radiant Heat : 

Radiant Heat Simplest and most common Primary effect: thermal Secondary effect: physiologic changes Kinetic energy 1st law of thermodynamics temperature

Slide 7: 

Conversion A person's normal body temperature is 98.6°F. What is a person's normal body temp in °C? °C = 5/9 (°F – 32) = 5/9 (98.6 –32) = 5/9 (66.6) = 333/9 = 37 °C

Conversion : 

Conversion A person with hypothermia has a body temperature of 29.1 °C. What is the body temperature in °F? °F = (9/5 °C) + 32 = 9/5 (29.1 °C) +32 = 52.4 + 32 = 84.4 °F

Thermal Science for Physical Medicine and Thermal Properties of Substance : 

Thermal Science for Physical Medicine and Thermal Properties of Substance State of the Substance Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics Density and Thermal Expansion Specific Heat Capacity Thermal Conductivity

State of the Substance : 

State of the Substance Heat of Fusion Amnt of heat required to change a substance from liquid to solid Heat of Vaporization amnt of heat required to change a substance from solid to gas

Heat Transfer : 

Heat Transfer Conduction Convection Conversion Radiation Evaporation

Density and Thermal Expansion : 

Density and Thermal Expansion Density Describes the compactness of a substance Thermal expansion Tendency of a matter to increase in size, often as an effect of increasing temperature.

Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity : 

Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Capacity Amount of heat required to raise temp of a given weight of a material by a given number of degrees Thermal Conductivity Refers to the ability of a substance to conduct heat

Slide 15: 

The End

Topic Objectives : 

Topic Objectives Describe the structural and functional aspects of the skin and related structures Discuss some skin conditions and diseases that we should be aware of when treating patients with the different physical agent Analyze how different physical agents affect vascular and lymphatic systems of peripheral circulation Identify the physiologic factors causing edema and its implication to treatment outcome

Skin : 

Skin Function Protection Sensation Regulation Layers Epidermis Dermis

Epidermis : 

Epidermis S. Corneum Sloughing keratin S. Lucidum Eleidin Found in thick skin S. Granulosum S. Spinosum S. Germinativum Ribosomes melanocytes

Dermis : 

Dermis Papillary layer Dermal papillae Meissner’s corpuscles Reticular layer Collagen and elastic reticular fibers Hair follicles, BV, sweat & oil glands, Pacinian corpuscles phagocytes

Thick Skin vs Thin Skin : 

Thick Skin vs Thin Skin Soles & palms, pads and fingers and toes, parts of ext genitalia (+) 5 layers of epidermis Thicker s. corneum Intact s. malphigii

Color and Texture of Skin : 

Color and Texture of Skin Erythema Mottled erythema Erythema ab igne Pallor (blanching) Cyanosis Jaundice

Color and Texture of Skin : 

Color and Texture of Skin Jaundice Wheals/Hives Localized pruritic skin eruptions Rashes Primary skin dse Local or systemic allergic response Blisters fluid collected between layers of skin Inc mechanical stress Decubitus Ulcers Compression/shear stress on skin

Burns : 

Burns Tissue damage and cell death caused by intense heat, electricity, UV radiation or certain chemicals which may result in loss of body fluids and invasion of bacteria Rule of Nine

Classification of Burns : 

Classification of Burns Superficial Superficial Partial Thickness Deep Partial Thickness Full Thickness/Subdermal

Peripheral Circulatory System : 

Peripheral Circulatory System Anatomy Arteries Veins Capillaries Review of Blood Flow Function: Supply body tissues with oxygen and nutrients Remove excess fluids, CO2, metabolic wastes Help maintain constant body temperature

Shunting Mechanism : 

Shunting Mechanism Temporary closing or reduction of BF to one area to another AV shunts/AV anastomosis Anatomic channels that shunts blood to cutaneous circulation and reduce flow to deeper circulatory system Fxn: protects skin and prevent high core temp Activated when skin temp reaches 40° Skin, fingers, toes, nailbeds, lips & ears

Blood Pressure : 

Blood Pressure Pressure that blood exerts against inner walls of the BV Systolic vs diastolic P° Factors ANS Kidney Temperature Chemicals Epinephrine Nicotine Histamine and alcohol Diet

Orthostatic Hypotension : 

Orthostatic Hypotension Temporary low BP and dizziness upon rising suddenly from sitting or reclining position

Peripheral Vascular Disease : 

Peripheral Vascular Disease Arterial Dysfunctions s/sx: 5 P’s Venous Dysfunctions

Venous Dysfunctions : 

Venous Dysfunctions Varicose Veins Distended veins due to incompetent valves Stasis Ulcer Caused by lack of O2 and accumulation of metabolites Venous Phlebitis and Thrombosis Phlebitis vs thrombosis Embolism s/sx: warm, pink, swollen and tender Homan’s sign

Lymphatic System : 

Lymphatic System Represent an accessory route by which fluid can flow from interstitial spaces into the blood Lymphatic vessels/channels Lymph nodes

Edema : 

Edema Condition in which amnt of fluid within interstitial spaces is greater than (N) Anasarca vs effusion vs lymphedema Acute vs chronic edema Transudate vs exudate Pitting vs non pitting edema

4 Forces That Determines Fluid Mov’t Through Capillary Membrane : 

4 Forces That Determines Fluid Mov’t Through Capillary Membrane Capillary pressure Force fluid and dissolved substances OUTWARD through capillary membrane Plasma colloid osmotic pressure Cause fluid mov’t INWARD transport into capillary membrane Interstitial fluid pressure Force fluid inward if POSITIVE and vice versa Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure Force fluid OUTWARD the capillary membrane

Causes of Edema : 

Causes of Edema High hydrostatic pressure in the veins Inc capillary permeability Obstruction in lymphatic system Inflammation Active secretion of fluid into the interstitial space due to increased membrane permeability by inflammatory mediators

Slide 39: 

Thank You

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