Burn Wound Dressings

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Burn Wound Dressings and Biomaterial Applications : 

Burn Wound Dressings and Biomaterial Applications Kara Rusaw, Shelby Skoog, and Chris Wolla BIOE 302 Spring 2009

Introduction : 

Anatomy of skin Types of Burns Wound Healing Process Introduction www.silverion.com

Anatomy of Skin : 

Integumentary System Composed of 3 layers Epidermis outermost Dermis middle Hypodermis (or subcutaneous layer) innermost Anatomy of Skin

Burns : 

Fire and burns are the 5th most common causes of unintentional injury-related deaths in the US Approximately 1.1 million burn injuries require medical attention each year 50,000 require hospitalization 4,500 die from burn injuries Burns

Causes of Burn Injury : 

Thermal Fires, hot objects or surfaces, steam Chemical Acidic or alkaline Electrical Electrical outlets, household applicance, lightning Radiation Therapeutic levels of radiation used for cancer therapy, industrial incidents, nuclear weapon detonation Causes of Burn Injury

Types of Burns : 

Types of Burns First Degree Burn Superficial Damage to epidermis Second Degree Burn Superficial partial thickness Damage to epidermis and superficial dermis Third Degree Burn Deep partial thickness Damage to epidermis and deep dermis Full Thickness Full dermal tissue loss and possible subdermal tissues http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/images/ency/fullsize/1078.jpg

Functions of Skin : 

Protection Immunological Fluid, protein, and electrolyte homeostasis Thermoregulation Neurosensory Metabolism Functions of Skin

Wound Healing Process : 

Occurs when injury is too severe for regeneration Restores structure BUT NOT function Fibrosis Effectively binds area together but function is not restored Results in the formation of a scar 3 phases Inflammatory coagulation and infection prevention Proliferative granular tissue formation, re-epithelialization, and angiogenesis Remodeling Scar tissue and mechanical strength Wound Healing Process

Burn Wound Dressings : 

Desired Characteristics Wound dressing chosen to aid moist wound healing Protect wound from physical damage and micro-organisms Comfortable, flexible, durable Non-toxic and doesn’t irritate skin Non-adhesive Permeable to allow gaseous exchange Help with fluid balance Compatible with topical treatments Allow maximum activity for wound healing Burn Wound Dressings

Materials & Methods : 

Polyurethanes Silver Hydrogels Natural Biomaterials Materials & Methods

Polyurethanes : 

Polyurethane backbone with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) block complexes Creates a block copolymer Can complex with iodine in an alcoholic solution Additional copolymerizations, such as the addition of allyl alcohol or N-pyrrolidone (NVP), allows a more stable complex with iodine Creates an unstable foam Stabilized by silicone Polyurethanes Polyurethane PVP-iodine complex

Silver : 

For use in burn dressings, silver ions are complexed with sulfa derivative Silver sulfadiazine C10H9AgN4O2S  Silver React with negatively charged ions Sulfadiazine Sulfonamide antibiotic typically delivered in a 1% solution suspended in a water-soluble base Silver

Fucoidan : 

Sulfated polysaccharide Found in many species of brown seaweed Already proven to have anti-coagulative, cardioprotective and immune strengthening capabilities Fucoidan http://news.softpedia.com/news/Brown-Seaweed-Compound-Burns-Body-Fat-35295.shtml http://www.kangcare.com/En/En_ProductShow.asp?ArticleID=261

Chitosan : 

Derivative of chitin-- structural component in the exoskeleton of crustaceans Linear polysaccharide Positive charge makes it bind easily to negatively charged surfaces, such as mucous membranes Used by US Army in field wound dressings because of its hypoallergenic, anti-bacterial and blood clotting abilities Chitosan http://www.3xtec.com/Industries/Fish/Shrimp/tabid/280/Default.aspx http://170.107.206.70/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/chi_0067.shtml

Results : 

Polyurethane-polyvinylpyrrolidone block copolymer with iodine carrier Silver sulfadiazine Fucoidan-chitosan hydrogel Results

Polyurethane-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Copolymer : 

Once complexed with iodine/stabilized by silicone, the foam slab is cut into the desired shape and size Contact with bodily fluids: Releases iodine into the wound Blocks antimicrobial growth PVP blocks slows the rate of iodine degredation Problem: iodine toxicity Polyurethane-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Copolymer

Silver Sulfadiazine : 

Cream applied to burn wound dressing for 2nd/3rd degree burns Silver ions react with negatively charged compounds within the cell, thus rendering them useless the cell. destroys ATP production, DNA transcription, as well as respiration, which effectively eliminates the bacteria Sulfadiazine eliminates bacteria by stopping the production of folic acid inside the bacterial cell Known as Silvadene and Flamazine Silver Sulfadiazine

Fucoidan-chitosan : 

Study on fucoidan-chitosan films published by the Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists to test the effect of fucoidan-chitosan films on dermal burn healing Seven adult male New Zealand white rabbits used as test subjects and each was treated with superficial dermal burns Porous chitosan films created via the solvent dropping method Burns treated with one of each of the following: chitosan film with fucoidan added fucoidan solution chitosan film without fucoidan nothing (control group) Fucoidan-chitosan

Fucoidan-chitosan : 

Biopsy samples taken after 7, 14 and 21 days After 14 days the fucoidan-chitosan film showed greatest re-epithelialization, dermal papillary formation and fastest wound closure Fucoidan-chitosan CFF= chitosan film with fucoidan FS= fucoidan solution CF=chitosan film without fucoidan CTRL= control group http://www.aapspharmscitech.org/view.asp?art=pt0802039

Conclusion : 

Burns are a common injury and occur in different degrees Different biomaterials are used to treat burns in the form of wound dressings Polyurethanes Silver Hydrogels Natural biomaterial These biomaterials are used to accelerate the wound healing process as well as protect from harmful subtances Conclusion

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