Sloan Digital sky survey

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Sloan Digital Sky Survey : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Courtesy: Cosmus

Present and Future of Observational Cosmology : 

June 4, 2008 Scott Dodelson User's Meeting Present and Future of Observational Cosmology

Beyond-the-Standard-Model Cosmology : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Beyond-the-Standard-Model Cosmology Neutrino Mass Dark Matter Dark Energy Inflation The foundation upon which these discoveries are based is often overlooked

Consider the United States in 1790 : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Consider the United States in 1790 Over-densities of order 50 Concentrated in East

Consider the United States Today : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Consider the United States Today Over-densities of order 10,000 Concentration in coasts Traces of primordial density (Boston-Washington; East > West)

The story of this evolution is the story of the United States : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 The story of this evolution is the story of the United States When we understand the evolution from one map to another, we can understand the sociological, economic, and political forces acting on the US the people, or the constituents, of the US

Less parochially … : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Less parochially … When we understand cosmic evolution, we will understand the fundamental forces in the universe the constituents of the universe Inhomogeneities of a few parts in a hundred thousand Inhomogeneities spanning >30 orders of magnitude

We do understand (at least in broad strokes) cosmic evolution! : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 We do understand (at least in broad strokes) cosmic evolution! The universe started smooth and evolved to be clumpy because of gravitational instability

Slide 9: 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Collaboration: ~150 scientists from Am. Museum Nat. History Astrophysical Inst. Potsdam U. Basel Cambridge U. Case Western Reserve U. Chicago Drexel U. Fermilab Institute for Adv. Studies Japanese Participation Grp Johns Hopkins U. JINA Kavli Institute for Part. Astro. Korean Scientist Group LAMOST (China) Los Alamos Nat. Lab Max Planck Inst. Astron. Max Planck Inst. Astrophy. New Mexico State U. Ohio State U. U. Pittsburgh U. Portsmouth Princeton U. US Naval Obs. U. Washington 2.5m telescope 5 filters Spectroscopy

Many Recent Discoveries : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Many Recent Discoveries Hundreds of Type Ia Supernovae Milky Way Structure 8 O’clock Arc and other gravitational lenses

Large Scale Structure with SDSS : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Large Scale Structure with SDSS SDSS: Tegmark et al. 2007 “Main Sample” Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG)

Decompose into eigenmodes : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Decompose into eigenmodes Reduces ~ 1 millions data points to several thousand coefficients Small scale structure (irrelevant for cosmology) hidden in higher modes

Variance of the coefficients encodes cosmological information : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Variance of the coefficients encodes cosmological information Yellow band is due to structure: size of yellow band is related to power spectrum Poisson noise Cosmic structure

Power Spectrum of Galaxies : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Power Spectrum of Galaxies Small scales (high k) entered the horizon when the universe was radiation dominated (growth suppressed) Position of this plateau pins down epoch of matter domination  amount of matter in the universe

Evidence for non-baryonic dark matter : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Evidence for non-baryonic dark matter Turnover scale measures Ωm Structure of peaks and troughs

Cosmic Evolution  Dark Energy : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Cosmic Evolution  Dark Energy Angular size of peaks in CMB  Flat Peak in galaxy power spectrum  Dark Energy Independent of SN

SDSS PhD Theses 2006 : 12/15 remain in astrophysics : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 SDSS PhD Theses 2006 : 12/15 remain in astrophysics Ummi Abbas, University of Pittsburgh The environmental dependence of dark matter and galaxy clustering Laboratoire D’Astrophysique de Marseille Marcel Agueros, University of Washington Candidate Isolated Neutron Stars and Other Stellar X-ray Sources from the ROSAT All-Sky and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys Columbia Kevin Covey, University of Washington Dynamical Properties of Embedded Protostars and the Luminosity Function of the Galactic Disk Harvard Anna Gallazzi, MPA and University of Munich Modelling and Interpretation of Galaxy Spectra: the Stellar Populations of Nearby Galaxies. MPIA Stefan Kautsch, University of Basel The Nature of Flat Galaxies University of Florida Ben Koester, University of Michigan MaxBCG: Systematic Discovery, Characterization and Calibration of Galaxy Clusters from Large Optical Surveys University of Chicago Rachel Mandelbaum, Princeton University Weak gravitational lensing analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data Institute for Advanced Study Morad Masjedi, New York University Massive Galaxy Merging and Cosmogony NYU Nikhil Padmanabhan, Princeton University Clustering properties of luminous red galaxies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data Hubble Fellow, LBL Gauri Kulkarni, Carnegie Mellon UniversityThe three-point correlation function of Luminous Red Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Software Industry Cheng Li, University of Science and Technology of China The formation of large scale structures and galaxies Shanghai Astronomical Observatory Alexey Makarov, Princeton UniversityCosmological constraints from Lya-alpha forest clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Goldman Sachs James Pizagno, Ohio State University The Tully-Fisher Relation, Its Residuals, and a Comparison toTheoretical Predictions for a Broadly Selected Sample of Galaxies Stony Brook Ramin Skibba, University of Pittsburgh Marked statistics and the environmental dependence of galaxy formation MPI Masayuki Tanaka, University of Tokyo The Build-Up of the Colour-Magnitude Relation

SDSS Impact : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 SDSS Impact The on-line database receives a million queries a month 1785 papers included SDSS in their abstract. Numerous articles in popular magazines Raw Data for Google Sky, Galaxy Zoo With WMAP 2003 Science breakthrough of the year One appearance on David Letterman

SDSS Impact : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 SDSS Impact based on number of citations to published papers

SDSS Impact on FNAL : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 SDSS Impact on FNAL Largest Astrophysics Effort Focus of much technical and scientific effort Current vibrant program (e.g. success in competitive solicitations) built on SDSS What’s next?

SDSS covers only 10-4 of the available cosmic volume : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 SDSS covers only 10-4 of the available cosmic volume

Dark Energy Survey will probe much deeper than SDSS : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Dark Energy Survey will probe much deeper than SDSS SDSS Bigger telescope, better CCD’s, photometric redshifts DES

Dark Energy Survey : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Dark Energy Survey Study Dark Energy using 4 complementary techniques: I. Cluster Counts II. Weak Lensing III. Baryon Acoustic Oscillations IV. Supernovae Two multi-band surveys: 5000 deg2 g, r, i, z 9 deg2 repeat (SNe) Operate 2011-16 (525 nights) Now has CD2, CD3a! Blanco 4-meter at CTIO

Dark Energy Survey : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Dark Energy Survey Ohio State University Argonne University of Pennsylvania Brazil Consortium University of Michigan UK DES Collaboration Spain DES Collaboration NCSA NOAO LBL University of Chicago University of Illinois Fermilab DECam Build new 3 square degree camera and Data Management system

Dark Energy Survey Goals : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Dark Energy Survey Goals Dark Energy Overlap with South Pole Telescope, Vista Hemisphere Survey Map volume 10x larger than SDSS!

JDEM Mission: TBD 2009 : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 JDEM Mission: TBD 2009 SNAP Spectra of thousands of Supernovae Map the universe out to even higher redshift Weak lensing from Space Kasliwal et al 2007

In principle could go further … : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 In principle could go further … One possibility: 21cm surveys

What could we learn? : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 What could we learn? Measure Neutrino Mass (current upper limits ~0.5 eV) Running of Primordial Perturbation Spectrum (models of inflation) Test Gravity (Φ related to δ via Poisson Equation) … We don’t know what we are going to learn

Moral: Exploring Cosmic Structure Pays : 

Scott Dodelson User's Meeting June 4, 2008 Moral: Exploring Cosmic Structure Pays SDSS has been a great success for FNAL and our collaborators DES is the natural successor: at the very least it will pin down properties of dark energy at the few percent level and map out 10x as much volume SNAP will go even further, producing distortion-free images of the high redshift universe Our User Community is young, but growing. Join us!

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