Communities & Biome

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Communities and Biomes : 

Communities and Biomes

Community : 

Community Collection of several interacting populations that inhabit a common ecosystem.

Why do Animals and Plants live where they do? : 

Why do Animals and Plants live where they do?

Limiting Factors : 

Limiting Factors Environmental factors that affect an organism’s ability to survive in its environment, such as food, predators, and temperature.

Slide 5: 

Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.

Slide 6: 

Lack of Water - Less grass - less grass seeds - less mice - less hawks - less bird watchers...

Liebigs Law of the Minimum : 

Liebigs Law of the Minimum The success of an organism depends on several requirements, if one of these is present in minimal quantities this will limit the organism regardless of the abundance of the others.

Limiting Factor = Nitrogen : 

Limiting Factor = Nitrogen No matter how much of the other minerals you have once you run out of nitrogen plants can not grow. So nitrogen in this example is the limiting factor.


DEER Winter Range is the limiting factor for deer.

Shelford’s Law of Tolerance : 

Shelford’s Law of Tolerance Organisms have an ecological maximum and minimum, with a range in between which represents the “limits of tolerance”.

Succession : 

Succession The orderly replacement of one community with another.

2Types of succession : 

2Types of succession Primary (1°) - Occurs where no community had previously occupied the site. Bare rock, Sand dune, Glacial till, volcanoes, open water.

Slide 15: 

Secondary (2°) - Occurs where the original community has been disturbed or destroyed Fire, drought, flood, disease, insects, over grazing, timber harvest, agriculture, volcano.

Pioneer Organisms : 

Pioneer Organisms The first species into an area. Lichen

Slide 17: 

Bare Rock Lichens Mosses Ferns, Shrubs, grasses Pines Hardwoods

Slide 18: 

Open water algae submergents Floating leafed plants Emergents cattails Bog shrubs, grasses Bog trees

Climax Community : 

Climax Community A stable mature community that undergoes little or no change in species. Do Section Assessment 3.1 page 71 #1-6.

Biome : 

Biome Major Biotic region of the world characterized by the dominant vegetation.

Biomes of North America : 

Biomes of North America Polar Tundra Taiga-Boreal Forest-Coniferous forest Deciduous forest

Biomes of North America : 

Biomes of North America Tropical Rain forest Tall Grass prairie Mid or Mixed Grass prairie Short Grass plains

Biomes of North America : 

Biomes of North America Mountain Complex Cold Desert Hot Desert Temperate Rain Forest

Desert Biome : 

Desert Biome Deserts of the U.S. Cold desert Hot desert Mojave Sonoran Chihuahuan

Cold Desert : 

Cold Desert Location: Utah, Nevada, Oregon, S.E. Washington S. Idaho, E. California

Mojave : 

Mojave Characteristic Plant: Joshua Tree Location: S. Cal., S. Nev, SW. Utah

Sonoran : 

Sonoran Characteristic Plant: Saguaro Cactus Location: S. Az, N. Mexico

Chihuahuan : 

Chihuahuan Characteristic Plant: None Location: S. New Mexico, W. Texas, N. Mexico

Fun Facts about Deserts : 

Fun Facts about Deserts 20% of the earth's surface is a desert. Desertification: Where grassland turns to desert. (OK. Dust bowl)


REASONS FOR DESERTS Location @ 30° N & S latitude. Rain Shadow Remote from source of oceanic moisture. Wind blowing over cold oceans.

Characteristics of Deserts : 

Characteristics of Deserts Low & Erratic ppt. Extreme seasonal & diurnal temperatures. Sting winds High UV radiation low humidities

Plant Adaptations : 

Plant Adaptations Leaves modified to spines. Reduced leaf size drop leaves during dry periods succulence

Plant adaptations : 

Plant adaptations Shallow wide spreading roots Thick cuticle Small in size Stomate open only at night

Animal Adaptations : 

Animal Adaptations Nocturnal or Crepuscular (dawn or dusk) Scales or Shells (reptiles) Burrowing (#1biome) Efficient Kidneys

Animal Adaptations : 

Animal Adaptations Concentrated Feces. Large surface to volume ratio Estivation: inactivity due to heat


TUNDRA Finnish word: Treeless plain

Reasons for Tundra : 

Reasons for Tundra Location: above 60° N or S latitude. Long days in summer Long nights in winter low temperatures

Characteristics of tundra : 

Characteristics of tundra Short vegetation - trees are dwarf Permafrost Cryoplanation: sculpturing of the landscape by cold. Soil infertile and acidic

Characteristics of tundra : 

Characteristics of tundra Very little bacteria or fungi in soil. (too cold) Less than 10” of rain per year.

Plant adaptations : 

Plant adaptations Low growing and spreading near the ground. Vegetative reproduction common. Produce seed and grow quickly.

Animal Adaptations : 

Animal Adaptations Dense fur or feathers Small surface per body volume ratio Thick layers of fat small or short appendages color dimorphism

Animal Adaptations : 

Animal Adaptations Migration Feathered tarsi Large feet Produce their own antifreeze

Important facts of the Tundra : 

Important facts of the Tundra Lichens: most important plant in food chain. Lemming: most important animal in food chain.

Grassland : 

Grassland Major grassland on every continent. Eurasia: Steppe South America: Pampas North America: Plain, Prairie Africa: Veld

Reasons for Grasslands : 

Reasons for Grasslands Location: Between equator and 30° N & S latitude. Between deserts and forests. Ppt. 10”- 30”

Characteristics : 

Characteristics High evaporation rates Mainly grazing or burrowing animals. Flat & Rolling hills. Sever weather, floods, tornadoes, thunderstorms, freezing temps, droughts.

Characteristics : 

Characteristics Support lots of grazing animals. 50 - 60 million bison in one herd. If you stand on a shoebox and look out across the grassland you can see the back of your head.

Plant Adaptations : 

Plant Adaptations Intercalary meristems: Growing part of plant is @ or below ground level. Form bunches form sod: interlocking roots Shallow root system

Plant Adaptation : 

Plant Adaptation Flower at different time of the year. Flexible stem Long and narrow stem Fast growing

Animal Adaptations : 

Animal Adaptations Burrowing, (#2 biome) Strong flight or running Protective coloration Strong vision

Animal Adaptations : 

Animal Adaptations Startle Hopping motion


AQUATIC BIOMES Marine Biome: Ocean = 70% of Earth's surface. Contains lots of water.

Ask your Teacher to draw the location of the ZONES now. : 

Ask your Teacher to draw the location of the ZONES now. He might have a cool handout that will help if you ask him.

Inter-tidal Zone : 

Inter-tidal Zone Fresh/saltwater Wet/Dry Pounding surf strong currents Plenty of light

Animals found here : 

Animals found here Sea urchins, chitons, clams, mussels, oysters, oyster catchers, sea anemones, crabs, sea stars, small algae.

Neritic Zone : 

Neritic Zone Good light Strong currents Lots of minerals Most marine life found here Lots of Plankton

Animals found here : 

Animals found here Squid, fish, protozoans, plankton, large algae, crabs, lobster, sea turtles, whales, ship wreck victims,etc.

Photic Zone : 

Photic Zone Good light Low amount of minerals little life open ocean

Animals found here : 

Animals found here Not much

Aphotic Zone : 

Aphotic Zone No light at all abyssal organisms near freezing temperatures reduced skeletal structure large stomachs

Animals found here : 

Animals found here Weird and Strange Stuff, Glowing in the dark, scary looking things.

Benthic Zone : 

Benthic Zone On the bottom silt, sand, mud Low visibility Food scraps

Animals : 

Animals Things that crawl or are flat etc.

Estuary : 

Estuary Biome where freshwater meets saltwater. Bays, mud flats, salt marshes.

Characteristics : 

Characteristics Plenty of Light Shallow water Lots of minerals High variation in temp & salinity Exposure to air

Things you find there : 

Things you find there Clams sea worms mud water Salt grass etc.

Freshwater Biome : 

Freshwater Biome 2 main kinds of lakes: Oligotrophic Eutrophic

Oligotrophic lakes : 

Oligotrophic lakes Young lake 50’ + deep Blue to green in color Very little shallow water

Oligotrophic lakes : 

Oligotrophic lakes Bottom “V” shaped low fertility High dissolved oxygen Low fish population

Oligotrophic lakes : 

Oligotrophic lakes Examples: Bear Like Fish Lake

Oligotrophic lakes : 

Oligotrophic lakes Types of fish: Lake trout White fish Cisco

Eutrophic Lake : 

Eutrophic Lake Eutrophication: Addition or introduction of organic matter into a lake. Aging process of a lake.

Eutrophic Lake : 

Eutrophic Lake Older lakes shallower 50’ or less green to yellow in color considerable shallow water

Eutrophic Lake : 

Eutrophic Lake Lots of shoreline vegetation bottom a wide “U” shape High fertility Low dissolved oxygen fish population high

Eutrophic Lake : 

Eutrophic Lake Examples: Utah lake Panguitch lake Cutler reservoir

Eutrophic Lake : 

Eutrophic Lake Types of fish: Bass Perch Blue gill Crappie

Lake vs. River : 

Lake vs. River Lake: No current or very little current River: Strong current

Adaptations for living in a strong current : 

Adaptations for living in a strong current Streamlined body Strong pectoral fins Pointed nose

Parts of a Fish : 


Categories of Fish in Utah : 

Categories of Fish in Utah Game: Trout, bass, pike. Trash: Sucker, Carp, Utah Chub. Forage: Minnows, sculpins, shiners. Panfish: Perch, Crappie, Blue gill. Commercial: Salmon


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