Slide 1: U K
JAPAN FADS & CHANGES Contents : Contents The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Facts and History –
Japan, Facts and History –
UK Changes –
Japan Changes – Sreelatha P Nair Anumary KunjuKunju Sathish BS Naika Sreekiran G S Slide 3: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Slide 4: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - facts North-western Europe. It is bordered to the south by the English Channel; to the east by the North Sea; to the west by the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Consists of England,, Scotland, Wales ,and Northern Ireland
(also known as Ulster).
Great Britain comprises only England, Scotland and Wales.
The British Isles is a geographically term which includes Great Britain, the whole of Ireland, and all the offshore islands. Slide 5: Up until the seventeenth century there had been four 'countries' in the British Isles. HISTORY – AT A GLANCE Before 17th Century ENGLAND SCOTLAND WALES IRELAND Each one had its own separate sense of identity, its own history, even its own language. There was no such word as British. People were simply either English, Scottish, Welsh or Irish. Slide 6: 1536 - Act of Union joins England and Wales
1707 - Act of Union unites Scotland and England, together with Wales to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1801 - The Irish Parliament voted to join the Union. then Kingdom of Great Britain becomes
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1922 - Name changed to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, when most of the Southern counties in Ireland choose independence. History of making of the UK JAPAN - FACTS : JAPAN - FACTS located in the North Pacific off the coast of Russia and the Korean peninsula.
located in an area known as The Ring of Fire in the Pacific
Japan consists of four main larger islands and more than 4000 smaller islands.
The main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu
Tokyo, the capital mega-city of Japan, is located on Honshu island JAPAN – History At a Glance : JAPAN – History At a Glance Island of Japan - most likely people arrived into Japan through Korea, Siberia and/or Taiwan/China.
Japan was founded in the 7th century BC by the ancestral Emperor Jimmu.
During the 16th century, traders from Portugal, the Netherlands, England, and Spain arrived.
Attack on the US naval base in Pearl Harbor (1941)- World war II
United States obliterated Hiroshima and Nagasaki with two atomic bombs. – 1945 Aug 6th Slide 10: UK - changes UK – Change in GDP : UK – Change in GDP The UK has enjoyed a remarkably stable growth trend during the last 13 years, oscillating between +4% and +1.5% growth with-in a clearly defined channel and easily recognizable cycles.
That GDP Trend is targeting a downtrend to between +1.3 and +1.6%
But The forecast for UK GDP growth by the end of 2008 is for a an annualised growth rate of between 1% and 1.3%. Major changes : Major changes Patterns of demand: the rise of the service economy
• Although its overall contribution to wealth generation continues to be substantial, manufacturing only accounts for some 15 per cent of total employment
‘workplaces’ are shrinking in size
SMEs account for more than 99% of the UK's 4m enterprises and 46% of employment
most large enterprises are networks of small units
workplaces’ are more ‘mobile’ and ‘dispersed’
working patterns are increasingly diverse
there is more ‘round-the-clock’ working
there is more part time/temporary/agency working Slide 13: Patterns of supply: the demographic dimension
It isn’t only changes in demand that are important, however – supply side issues also fundamentally important:
• declining birth rates mean that by 2011 under16s will make up only 18 per cent of population
• increases in longevity, plus more young people going into higher education, means the ‘greying’ of the workforce - by 2006, 45-59 year olds will form the largest group in the work force
• the workforce is becoming increasingly ‘feminised’ - by 2011, 82 per cent of extra jobs will taken by women
• the role of people from ethnic minorities is likely to be become increasingly significant – it is estimated that they will account for no less than 50 per cent of the growth in the working population over the next decade
• migrant/immigrant workers already make up much of the shortfall in labour supply and are likely to continue to do so. Major changes Major changes : By the year 2040, one in four will be a pensioner and barely half the population will be under 45.
It becomes a necessity to make fuller use of the older employee. Hiring older employees is a strategy already adopted by some UK companies
The average working week is 44 hours with only 28 days’ holiday per year
Increased Outsourcing – Move towards flexible firm
Flexible working patterns – Part time and Temperory Major changes Key Indicators : Key Indicators GDP per Capita: $27700
Literacy Rate: 99%
Unemployment Rate: The unemployment rate rose to 6.5% - 29.4 million people were in work in the period November to January according to the labour force survey (LFS).
The number of people employed actually rose by 2000 this quarter(JFM - 2009) but is down by 75,000 on the last year. Slide 16: JAPAN -CHANGES JAPAN – Change in GDP : JAPAN – Change in GDP Key Indicators : Key Indicators GDP per Capita: $33,800
Literacy Rate: 99%
Unemployment Rate: 4% JAPAN – Present Status at a glance : JAPAN – Present Status at a glance Industries: Consumer electronics, motor vehicles, machine tools, steel, and nonferrous metals
Exports: Motor vehicles, semiconductors, and office machinery
Agriculture: Rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit, pork, fish
Life Expectancy: Total population 82, Male 78, Female 85
Oil imports: 5.425 million bbl/day
Internet Users: 87.5 million
Environmental Issues: Acid rain; Japan is the largest consumer of Amazon rainforest timber Facts and Figures : Facts and Figures In 1999, the ratio of active job openings to active job applicants stood at just 0.48, the lowest ever recorded, and in 2001, for the first time the unemployment rate entered the 5.0 to 5.9% range.
Present unemployment rate is 4%.
unemployment rate, particularly among men in the 60 to 64 age bracket, is high.
companies are increasingly introducing performance-based wage systems.
The working population is already diminishing in both real and proportional terms. As a result, there is concern over problems such as a slow-down in economic growth, This is an after effect of decrease in population growth rate.
Stable growth in the region of 3-5%, stable commodity prices, and low unemployment rate
1970s Japan became an “exporting superpower Economic growth rate : Economic growth rate Change in Population - JAPAN : Change in Population - JAPAN Slide 23: Decreasing Numbers Employed in the Agricultural and Forestry Industries.
the number of workers in production, manufacturing, machine operation and construction is declining due to effects of the globalization of the manufacturing business and construction slumps.
the number of those workers engaged in specialized or technical work has risen consistently over the last fourteen years.
Working hours per week decreased from 44 to 40. Major Changes Change in number of employed workers by occupation : Change in number of employed workers by occupation Changes in wage system : Changes in wage system Seniority-based Wage System-Wage systems that base remuneration on age or years of service
Bonus System - peculiarity of Japan’s bonuses is said to be in their large size. Companies pay biannual bonuses equivalent to several months’ salary in the summer and winter
Performance-related Salaries - annual salary system linked to performance. To create a better balance between those employees' salaries and their productivity, and to further motivate workers, an increasing number of companies-mainly large corporations-are adopting a salary system based on annual performance for manager.
Retirement Benefits System - Retirement benefits are paid in proportion to the number of years of service at a specific company, but the scheme is such that differences in the payment amount arise depending on the reason for retirement .The amount paid is lower for those who retire for their own convenience, but higher for those who retire at the mandatory age after long service, or for those who retire at the companies request. Slide 26: Japan is presently faced with a scenario wherein a rapid decline in the birth rate and progressive ageing is leading to the advent of a society with a declining population.
Based on this The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare submitted
to the Diet a bill for Partial Amendments of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act, containing
strengthening of antidiscrimination regulations, including a ban against indirect discrimination,
strengthening of regulations against the unfair treatment of workers for reasons such as pregnancy or childbirth,
strengthening of an employee’s commitment towards preventing sexual harassment, and
(4) the relaxation of regulations regarding the underground (pit) work done by women. Slide 27: There are broad and striking changes sweeping the Japanese and UK employment system. How fundamental they are, it is difficult to evaluate. No matter whether it regards performance pay or reductions of the workforce, the change of HR practices in those countries seems to be slow and incremental, carefully avoiding abrupt or traumatic breaks with the past. Slide 28: Thank you Prepared and presented by