Traumatic Brain Injury

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Traumatic Brain Injury : 

Traumatic Brain Injury Matsue Evans ED443G Dr. JCyrus 03/31/2009

What is Traumatic Brain Injury? : 

What is Traumatic Brain Injury? Traumatic brain injury is physical injury to brain tissue that temporarily or permanently impairs brain function.

What types of TBI are there? : 

What types of TBI are there? Two major types of TBI: Penetrating Injuries ~ foreign object enter the brain and caused damage to specific brain parts. example: bullet Closed Head Injuries ~ a blow to the head as occurs. Example: car accident

What causes TBI? : 

What causes TBI? The leading causes of TBI are: Falls (28%); Motor vehicle-traffic crashes (20%); Struck by/against (19%); Assaults (11%). Blasts are a leading cause of TBI for active duty military personnel in war zones.

A diagram of the forces on the brain in a coup-contrecoup injury : 

A diagram of the forces on the brain in a coup-contrecoup injury

History: Foreign Object thru skull: : 

History: Foreign Object thru skull:

Who is at high risk? : 

Who is at high risk? Males are about 1.5 times as likely as females to sustain a TBI. The two age groups at highest risk for TBI are 0 to 4 year olds and 15 to 19 year olds. Certain military duties increase the risk of sustaining a TBI. African Americans have the highest death rate from TBI

Primary Brain Damage : 

Primary Brain Damage Skull fracture Contusions/bruises Hematomas/blood clots Lacerations Nerve damage Secondary Brain Damage

Signs and Symptoms : 

Signs and Symptoms Other symptoms of mild TBI include: headache, vomiting, nausea, lack of motor coordination, dizziness, difficulty, balancing, lightheadedness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, forgetful, and changes in sleep pattern.

Continue : 

Continue Other symptoms of Moderate or Severe TBI include: headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions, an inability to awaken, dilation of one or both pupils, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the limbs, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.

Unequal pupil size is a sign of a serious brain injury. : 

Unequal pupil size is a sign of a serious brain injury.

Treatment : 

Treatment People with moderate to severe injuries are likely to receive treatment in an ICU. Treatment depends on the recovery stage primary aim is to stabilize the patient and focus on preventing further injury Rehabilitation is the main treatment

How many have TBI? : 

How many have TBI? Of the 1.4 million who sustain a TBI each year in the United States: 50,000 die; 235,000 are hospitalized; and 1.1 million are treated and released from an emergency department. The number of people with TBI who are not seen in an emergency department or who receive no care is unknown.

Prevention : 

Prevention use of seat belts, child safety seats motorcycle helmets presence of roll bars airbags education program changes to public policy and safety laws

What is Assistive Technology? : 

What is Assistive Technology? Any item or piece of equipment may be used with a person with a disability to perform specific tasks, improve functional capabilities, and become more independent.

Examples of cognitive consequences: : 

Examples of cognitive consequences: Short and long term memory loss Slowed ability to process information Trouble concentrating or paying attention for periods of time Difficulty keeping up with a conversation Other communication difficulties such as word finding problems Spatial disorientation Organizational problems and impaired judgment

Physical Consequences : 

Physical Consequences Seizures of all types Muscle spasticity Double vision or low vision, even blindness Loss of smell or taste Speech impairments such as slow or slurred speech Headaches or migraines Fatigue, increased need for sleep; balance problems

Emotional Consequences : 

Emotional Consequences Lack of initiating activities, or once started, difficulty in completing tasks without reminders Increased anxiety Depression and mood swings Denial of deficits Impulsive behavior More easily agitated Egocentric behaviors; difficulty seeing how behaviors can affect others

Some assistive technology would include : 

Some assistive technology would include Cognitive Aids Feeding Devices Communication Aids Alternate Computer Access Adaptive Toys Visual Aids Aids to augment hearing Aids to assist with walking, dressing, and other activities of daily living

Choosing appropriate assistive technology: : 

Choosing appropriate assistive technology: A team approach is always best The user is the most crucial team member Significant others are the next most crucial members Focus on function Strive for simplicity Generalize  about the use of the device

Assistive technology allows people to: : 

Assistive technology allows people to: Participate in everyday activities Play and enjoy recreational activities Become mobile Communicate Hear better See better Learn easier Use a computer Become more independent at mealtime

Conclusion : 

Conclusion As technology improves, more people who suffer brain injury can survive. And even the less life threatening forms of TBI can result in significant problems that may persist, or even arise down the road from the injury. These individuals are often young, and otherwise healthy. Persistent cognitive, behavioral, or mood disturbances significantly affect short and long term outcome.

Resources for Educators : 

Resources for Educators

References : 


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