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Dir, IRS/SSS ISRO Satellite Centre Slide 2: When the media asked former chairman, ISRO whether India can afford to send a craft to the Moon, he replied “Can India afford not to go the Moon” Outline of presentation : Outline of presentation Why go to the Moon? What’s known about Moon? Chandrayaan-1 Mission objectives Payloads in the Mission Spacecraft configuration Launch vehicle Mission profile Imaging strategy for lunar coverage Deep Space Network (DSN) Indian Space science data Center (ISSDC) Why go to the Moon : Why go to the Moon The origin of Moon is still not clearly understood and there have been several speculations Space programme for Lunar exploration was undertaken as early as 1959. Several Lunar exploratory missions since then have been conducted Interest in Lunar science was renewed when imaging systems onboard NASA’s “Galileo” spacecraft sent picture of the previously unexplored regions of the Moon during 1990 Galileo identified a large impact basin, about 2500km in diameter and 10 to 12 km deep in the south pole Aitken Region on the far side of the Moon Why go to the Moon (Contd ..) : Why go to the Moon (Contd ..) With the development of new technology, a new era of lunar exploration by many countries have now begun using advanced instruments and microelectronics Apart from scientific interest, the Moon could have economic benefits to mankind and could be of strategic importance The Moon’s surface has about one million tonnes of Helium-3 Moon contains 10 times more energy in Helium-3 than all the fossil fuels on Earth Helium-3 is believed to be fuel of the future Outpost for further planetary explorations and possible human settlements Slide 6: What is known about Moon? Landing and Sample Return Missions Apollo 11-17 (13), Luna 16, 20, 24 (1969-74) Orbiting Missions Clementine (1994) UVVIS, NIR, LWIR, LIDAR Mineral Mapping Lunar Prospector (1998) -ray, , Neutron Spectrometers, Magnetometer, Electron Reflectometer, Doppler Gravity Chemical Mapping, Water (?) SMART-1(2003) Mapping of geological and mineralogical resources (Res: 40m) A-13 A-12 A-14 A-15 A-16 A-11 A-17 L-24 L20 L-16 Future Lunar missions : Future Lunar missions Chang’e-1 by China scheduled for late 2007 3D map of Moon, Moon’s Soil composition & mineral distribution Selene by Japan scheduled for late 2007 Moon’s Topography, mineral content and gravity LRO by USA scheduled in late 2008 Water-ice at poles, selection of soft-landing sites, etc Russian Mission Scheduled for 2009 Slide 8: Understanding the origin and Evolution of the Moon Water on Moon? Special Regions of Interest: Polar Regions , South Pole Aitken Region, Selected Basins and Craters with central uplift Objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 Mission : Objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 Mission Simultaneous Mineralogical, Chemical & Photo-geological Mapping at resolutions better than previous and currently planned Lunar missions High resolution VIS-NIR mapping of the lunar surface to identify Fe, Al, Mg, Ti bearing mineral with high spatial resolution (100m) 3D mapping of lunar surface at very high spatial resolution (~5 m) High Resolution Laser ranging for topographical Map of the Moon (~0.1 deg longitudinal separation grids) Create Expertise & Motivate the Young Minds in Space and Planetary Science Slide 10: Configuration : 100 km polar orbiter Observation Period : 2 years Chandrayaan-1 Mission Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI) (0.4-0.9µm) Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)(0.5-0.75 µm) Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) Low energy X-ray spectrometer (LEX) (1-10KeV) High energy X- ray spectrometer (HEX) (10-200KeV) Slide 11: A new era of International Cooperation Based on science objectives and spacecraft resources, several AO proposals were accepted; they will complement/add to the Indian experiments to meet the basic science goals of the mission. I. IR spectrometers for mineral mapping (SIR-2 and MMM) II. An experiment to detect neutral atoms (SARA) III. An experiment to search for water-ice at the poles (mini-SAR) IV. An experiment to monitor energetic particle environment (RADOM) Lunar environment - Thermal : Sun movement restricted to ±1.50 w.r.t lunar equator Eternal lights at polar high land regions Low temperature excursions (-150 C to –500 C) Presence of water nearby likely Continuous solar power generation possible Lunar environment - Thermal Lunar environment - Other : South Pole Atkin Region (SPAR), largest impact basin in Solar System extends from South pole to 400 S latitude on the far side No known Seismic activity, no surface winds Hard shadows, no atmospheric dispersion Crystalline lunar soil can be paved glassy using microwaves, roads, craters to parabolic antenna backplanes Lunar environment - Other Comparison of Moon’s & Earth’s Orbit : Comparison of Moon’s & Earth’s Orbit Main Characteristics of Moon’s Orbit : The moon is a satellite of earth in a slightly elliptical orbit, inclination w.r.t the earth equator oscillating between 28035’ and 18021’ with a period of 18.6 years. The angle between lunar equator and ecliptic plane is approximately 1.50 resulting in poor illumination of polar regions No Atmospheric Drag No SELENO-Magnetic Fields 100 Km Circular Polar Orbit (Period of 118 min.) selected to meet the Imaging requirements Main Characteristics of Moon’s Orbit CHANDRAYAAN-1 ORBIT : CHANDRAYAAN-1 ORBIT Altitude: 100km Inclination: 90° Period: 117.6 min Mean ground velocity: 1.54 km/s Earth as seen by Moon: 1.9° - 2.1° Beam width of 0.7 m X-band antenna: 3.6° Moon disc at satellite: ±70° Slide 17: Payloads Payloads : Payloads Payloads from ISRO Terrain Mapping Camera with front, nadir and aft views(TMC). Hyper Spectral Imager(HySI). Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI). High Energy X-ray payload(HEX). Moon Impact Probe (MIP) Payloads from international agencies Low Energy X-ray (LEX)payload (CIXS). From Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL),UK / ESA Mini SAR from Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), USA under an MOU with NASA SIR-2 from Max Plank Institute, Germany under an MOU with ESA Radiation Dose Monitor from Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyser (SARA) Experiment developed jointly by IRF Sweden, SPL-VSCC India, ISAS/JAXA Japan and VBE Switzerland under an MOU with ESA Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) from JPL, US., under an MOU with NASA Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) : Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) Stereoscopic imaging instrument in panchromatic spectral band for generating high resolution three dimensional map of Moon Consists of fore, nadir and aft detectors housed in single enclosure Spatial: Swath – 20km, Resolution – 5m Spectral: 0.5 to 0.85µm 4000 pixel, 7µ linear APS detector Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI) : Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI) In visible and near infra-red band Spatial: Swath – 20km, Resolution – 80m Spectral: 0.4 to 0.95µm, resolution better than 15nm 256 x 512 pixel, 50µ area APS detector Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) : Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) Objectives To determine the global topographical field of Moon using the laser altimetry data To determine an improved model of the lunar gravity field To supplement TMC and HySI payloads Laser wavelength: 1064 nm Laser energy: 10 mj Vertical Resoultion: < 5m Detector: Avalanche Photodiode First time coverage of polar regions of Moon High Energy X-ray Spectrometer (HEX) : High Energy X-ray Spectrometer (HEX) Objectives Identify degassing fault zones by mapping of 222Rn and its radioactive daughter 210Pb, helps understanding volatile transport on Moon To determine the surface composition of Pb-210 in the uranium decay series by it’s 46.5 keV gamma ray To determine the integral flux of gamma rays coming out of Moon in the region 10 – 250 keV Energy Resolution: <7% @ 60 keV Energy range: 20 – 250 keV Spatial resolution: 20 km Swath: 40 km x 40 km Detector: CdZnTe (CZT) Moon Impact Probe (MIP) : Moon Impact Probe (MIP) Objectives Scientific exploration of the Moon near range To design, develop and demonstrate technologies required for impacting a probe at the desired location on the Moon Qualify some of the techniques required for soft-landing missions Payloads Mass spectrometer to assess the lunar atmosphere Radar altimeter to measure the altitude with a resolution of 5m Video imaging system (VIS) to take photographs of Moon’s surface From 100km orbit, it takes ~18 minutes to hit the Moon surface Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (LEX) : Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (LEX) Updated version of Smart-1 payload Consists of two instruments Chandrayaan-1 Compact Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) Main instrument X-ray Solar Monitor (XSM) Provides incident solar flux as input to C1X Objective: To carry-out high quality X-ray spectroscopic mapping of the Moon in order to study elemental abundance of Moon Basically measures fluorescent emissions from the surface of Moon and also monitors incident Solar X-ray emissions Detects Mg, Al, Fe and Si during non-Solar flare conditions (C1X) Detects Ca, Ti during Solar flare conditions (XSM) Energy range: 0.5 to 10 keV Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar(Mini-SAR) : Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar(Mini-SAR) Objective To map polar regions at an incident angle of app. 37 deg. Basically looks for ice / water deposits To resolve discrepancy in the data available from Clementine, Lunar Prospector and Arecibo Radar satellites with respect to nature and amount of deposits in the lunar polar region Range swath: 44km, Azimuth swath: 8km Ground range resolution: 140m for altimeter Radar system can operate as altimeter / scatterometer, radiometer and as a synthetic aperture radar Smart Infra Red Spectrometer (SIR-2) : Smart Infra Red Spectrometer (SIR-2) Updated version of SMART-1 payload It is a highly compact and near infra-red spectrometer Objective Analyze the lunar surface in various geological / mineralogical / topographical units Study of vertical distribution of crystal material Investigate the process of crater, maria and basin formation on Moon Explore “Space Weathering” process of the lunar surface Search for ices at the lunar poles SIR-2 collects the Sun’s light reflected by the Moon Spectral Wavelength: 0.93 to 24 µm Spectral resolution: 6nm Sub keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) : Sub keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) Consists of two payloads Chandrayaan Energetic Neutral Analyzer (CENA) Solar Wind Monitor (SWIM) Objective Imaging of the surface magnetic anomalies (Moon doesn’t have magnetic core, like in Earth. But Moon has different magnetic fields at different surface areas which is an anomaly) Studies of space weathering, i.e., physical and chemical changes that occur to the exposed materials on the surface of the Moon Imaging of Moon’s surface composition including imaging of permanently shadowed areas and search for volatile rich areas Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM) : Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM) Updated version of similar instrument flown in MIR space station since 1988 Objective Measure the particle flux, deposited energy spectrum, accumulated absorbed dose rate in the lunar orbit and evaluate the contribution of protons, neutron, electrons, gamma rays and energetic galactic cosmic radiation nuclei Provide an estimation of the dose map around Moon at different altitudes To evaluate the shielding characteristics (if any exists) of the Moon near environment towards galactic and solar cosmic radiation and solar particle events The experiment will be useful for future manned missions Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) : Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Payload is solar reflected energy imaging spectrometer Objective To assess the mineral resources of the Moon To characterize and map the composition of the surface at high spatial resolution Spectral- Range: 0.7 – 3.0 µm, Resolution: 10nm Radiometric: Range 0 to max. Lambertian, Sampling 12 bits Spatial: Swath 40km, Resolution 30m Slide 31: Spacecraft Configuration Spacecraft Configuration : Spacecraft Configuration S-band transmission through omni antenna Configured with two ± 90 hemi-spherical coverage antennas with opposite polarisation placed on the diametrically opposite face in the S/C X-band transmission through Steerable Dual Gimbal Antenna Sensors – CASS, SPSS, Star sensor BMU handles Command, Telemetry, AOCS functions Bi propellant system for orbit raising & maintainence CCSDS – compatible with world-wide network & DSN Single bus / battery system Canted Solar panel generates 700 W on normal incidence 27 AH Li Ion battery Slide 34: PLATFORM SPECIFICATIONS (NORMAL MODE POINTING AND STABILITY) Post-facto attitude determination: 40 arc-sec for entire mission life Slide 35: X-Band Downlinks from Chandrayaan-1 Mass Budget : Mass Budget Power Budget : Power Budget Slide 38: Ground Segment Slide 39: DSN-18 Chandrayaan-1 Ground Segment : Chandrayaan-1 Ground Segment ISTRAC IDSN STATIONS – S BAND Slide 42: Initial Phase Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) : Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) Basic Capabilities SSPO ( 725*725 km, i= 98.370 ) 1250 kg LEO (300*300 km ) 3400 kg GTO (240 * 36000 km, METSAT) 1050 kg Chandrayaan-1 (260 X 24000 km) 1304 kg Vehicle Configuration (6S9+S139)+L40+S7+L2.5 Slide 44: Sun Moon at Launch ETO GTO Lunar Transfer Trajectory Lunar Insertion Manoeuvre Mid Course Correction Trans Lunar Injection Initial Orbit ~ 1000 km Final Orbit 100 km Polar To achieve 100 x 100 km Lunar Polar Orbit. PSLV to inject 1304 kg in GTO of 260 x 24000 km. Lunar Orbital mass of 623 kg with 2 year life time. Indian Lunar Mission Launch Window : Launch Window It is necessary to have a LOI manoeuvre when Moon is at equator, i.e., when Moon is in the ascending or the descending node. Two launch opportunities in 28 days (lunar cycle) are possible. Capture at descending node is not favourable in all seasons as Sun lies in the perigee side, causing long shadows near apogee. Maximum shadow allowed per orbit is 100 minutes Transfer phase to lunar capture : Transfer phase to lunar capture Consolidated Network Stations : Consolidated Network Stations Slide 48: On-Orbit Phase Inertially fixed lunar polar orbit : Inertially fixed lunar polar orbit Orbit regression is negligible. Lunar sun synchronous orbit not possible. Inertially fixed polar orbit experiences continuously varying sun illumination over a year. Lunar Orbit as seen from Earth : Lunar Orbit as seen from Earth Classification of Payloads : Classification of Payloads Illumination dependant TMC + HySI M3 SIR-2 C1XS Illumination independent LLRI MiniSAR SARA HEX Moon independent RADOM XSM of C1XS SWIM of SARA Slide 52: TMC & HySI Imaging Strategy Sun aspect variations in a year : Sun aspect variations in a year Imaging Strategy - Definitions : Imaging Strategy - Definitions Prime Imaging season Season in which the solar aspect angle at lunar equator is within ±45°. Season comprises of 90 days centered around noon/midnight orbit suitable for optical imaging. Prime Imaging Zone Region within ±60° latitude of lunar equator, sensitive to illumination variation resulting from sun movement over the season. This zone is covered by imaging payloads within 60 days centered on noon/midnight orbit restricting the solar aspect angle within ±30° with respect to the lunar equator. Polar zone High latitude zones (beyond 60°) which are poorly illuminated and insensitive to sun movement. Low lands are permanently shadowed, high lands are perpetually under grazing sun rays. Imaging coverage is for 15 days wherein the solar aspect angle is restricted in the bands of ±30° and ±45° respectively. Imaging Strategy – Definitions … : Imaging Strategy – Definitions … Secondary Imaging season Season in which the solar aspect angle at lunar equator is beyond ±45°. Season comprises of 90 days centered on dawn/dusk orbit. In this period, payloads which are not dependent on ground illumination levels like mini-SAR, HEX, LEX, LLRI, SARA and RADOM are operated. Imaging Cycle All Sunlit longitudes of Moon are swept once in 28 days owing to rotation about its own axis termed as an Imaging Cycle. Each imaging season has TWO cycles. DSN Visibility at 100 km orbit : DSN Visibility at 100 km orbit Complete Lunar Surface Coverage : Complete Lunar Surface Coverage Distinct Mission Features : Distinct Mission Features Features that affect payload data processing Spacecraft yaw rotation Imaging in ascending and descending paths Varying Illumination conditions Vernier ground track shifts Variation in altitude Features that affect downlink Sun outage Rain attenuation during Moon rise / Moon set Slide 60: Lunar Eclipse Worst Case Eclipse – Earth & Moon Shadow : 48 m M.S 72 m P.E.S 48 m M.S 37 m E.S UMBRA PENUMBRA 35 m M.S 72 m P.E.S 48 m M.S M 48 m P.E.S 13 m P.E.S M.S – Moon shadow, P.E.S – Part Earth Shadow, E.S – Earth Shadow Worst Case Eclipse – Earth & Moon Shadow Slide 62: Duration in minutes MS –Moon Shadow LIT - Illumination period PES – Partial Earth Shadow ES – Earth Shadow WORST CASE ECLIPSE–EARTH AND MOON SHADOW Total Duration: 6.7 hours SUMMARY OF LUNAR ECLIPSES (2008-2010) : SUMMARY OF LUNAR ECLIPSES (2008-2010) Slide 64: Indian Space Science Data Centre (ISSDC) Slide 65: ISSDC Context Payload Reception Stations Principal Investigators S/C control center ISSDC Payload Operation Centers Science Working Group Science Data Users Time Allocation Committee Space Science Mission Projects S/W Developers – data products, tools Payload Developers Slide 66: ISSDC functions Primary Functions Ingest / Archive / Data Management Data processing Search & Order / Access & Dissemination Interface to Spacecraft control centers, Data reception centers, Payload designers, Principal investigators, Mission software developers and Science data users Slide 67: ISSDC facilities Server and Storage Support Area Network Support Area Public Network Access Workspace Private Network Access Workspace SATCOM Network Access Workspace Software & System Support Area System Administration Workspace System test and Maintenance Support Workspace Development, Integration and Test Support Workspace Operations Area ( IDSN Ops facility) Slide 68: POC Chandrayaan-1 Ground Segment PAYLOAD OPERATIONS Ephemeris Events PVAT Command Acknowledgement Instrument Telemetry (P/L data) Instrument House keeping OBT - UT File-ready Notification email Command Messages Products & E-mail notification Cmd Request messages Processed QLD input Archived PVAT OBT-UT Ref. Ephemeris Events Cmd schedule Pass schedule Instrument health DSN Bangalore – 18 / 32 m S-LBT (RT- 2) S-LBT (Dwell) X-LBT (PB – SSR#2) Remote View (SSR #2) S-Band Tracking data TC Ack P/L Raw Data: TMC – APS 1, 2, 3, HySI, LLRI, HEX, C1XS, M3, SIR-2, SARA, MIP, RADOM SS + Gyro data (SSR #2) TC Schedule file OVERALL DATA FLOW DIAGRAM TMC & HysI - SAC LLRI - ISAC HEX - PRL CIXSA - RAL CIXSB - ISAC SIR-2 – Max Planck, Germany SARA - VSSC miniSAR - APL M3 - JPL EXTERNAL DSN Bearslake APL NASA P/L raw data Look angles Tracking data LBT (RT + Dwell) Slide 69: Data Products Lunar DEM Generation : Lunar DEM Generation Global DEM generation from TMC triplet More than 100000 image triplets Grid interval size ~25-50m LLRI data use to be explored ISRO Moon Atlas : ISRO Moon Atlas Cover the entire moon surface at Uniform Scale (1:25,000/50,000) Consists of TMC & HySl Image and Image mosaics Contains Digital Elevation Model derived from TMC Softcopy & Hardcopy both Vector and Raster databases Slide 72: High level Data products The high level data products from the AO payloads are Near Infra-red Spectrometer (SIR-2) Spectroscopic data corrected for dark bias and bad pixel data Radiometric and wavelength corrected data Details of lunar surface in various geological, mineralogical and topographical units Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyser (SARA) Images of energetic neutral atom distributions for specific energy and mass group and time-dependent plots of total fluxes for them (CENA) Energy spectra for the four specified mass group atoms Linear plot of proton fluxes(SWIM) Slide 73: High level Data products (contd.) Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (MiniSAR) Level 1 products ortho-rectified and resampled into oblique map projections Four mosaics composed of multiply acquired data sets produced for regions above 80º lunar latitude using level2 stokes parameters Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Radiance at sensor and seleno-corrected spectral image cubes Reflectance data Radiation Dose monitor Experiment (RADOM) Estimated radiation dose equivalent from GCR,SPE and radiation dose maps around moon Moon environment characteristics Slide 74: Elemental composition and Mineral Maps:M3,SIR-2,HySI, C1XS,SARA DEM from TMC with LLRI topo map Magnetic anomaly map of SARA with TMC base map Polar region map from MiniSAR, LLRI overlaid with TMC base map Projection of X-ray line abundances from C1XS and HEX against DEM made from fusion of TMC and LLRI data Fusion of mineral map, elemental composition map with topographic map Integration of data from earlier lunar missions with that of Chandrayaan-1 Possible Fusion Data Products Slide 75: Public Outreach Slide 76: Visualization tools and other utilities Intended for public outreach and awareness. Tool would show at a given point of time, how much imaging is done on the globe of Moon. Overlay of processed data showing the information layers available for various instruments Data Fusion (R&D)and other utilities (in the form of software) User can generate fusion products using the utilities provided at ISSDC (generated by science teams or data processing teams) with required data download facility. This also includes visualization tools for looking at a particular area of interest Slide 77: Education and Outreach Activity Plan Comprehensive education and public outreach programme is under development Activities aimed towards a broad range of ages and abilities Education and Public Outreach programme planned in four categories Formal education As part of basic curriculum for high school level students, providing resource and support material-this is a long term strategy / plan Scientific research at university level (e.g. PLANEX Programme of ISRO) Semi-formal education Introducing project work as part of school curriculum (similar to that in for B.Tech) ISRO may provide tool kits (involvement of industries) Slide 78: Education and Outreach Activity Plan (contd.) Informal Education Seminar, talks on Moon,Chandrayaan-1 Essay contest Exhibition Team with local planetary society members, amateur observers /sky watchers-to share and exchange ideas Use website Moon globe on website –similar to Google-Earth using TMC DEM Public Outreach Popular publication Broadcast over national and local Radio and Television Network Use of Website For common public cultural, mythological and historical stories related to Moon Slide 79: Education and Outreach Activity Plan (contd.) A few sample questions which may be considered as project topic: Calculate distance between scale models of Earth and Moon To learn about locations and geology of sites identified by Chandrayaan-1 science team Compare the process of regolith formation on the Moon and the relative process on Earth Design a spacecraft for going to moon and choose a landing site of interest Construct a model of lunar rover Future lunar mission ideas Slide 80: Outreach Implementation Plan The outreach activity would be implemented in steps Mission update on ISRO/ Chandrayaan-1 Website from T-90 day Announcement of Opportunities towards Formal and Informal Outreach activities seeking proposals from different groups Collaborative agencies would be selected from Research Laboratories,School, Colleges, Universities, National and Regional science museums and Planetariums based on the activities After obtaining approval from DOS/ISRO, activities would be carried out and monitored in collaboration with P & PR Unit ISRO To Conclude – Why to go to Moon… : To Conclude – Why to go to Moon… The first, of course, the scientific goals that despite many missions of the past, the question of origin and evolution of Moon still remains unanswered The second objective is the challenges posed by technology and mission planning The third factor is such a mission can inspire the new generation by the sheer excitement that such a flag-ship mission will evoke. India cannot afford to lose out in its ability to pursue exploration Slide 82: Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.