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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: 1 HOLKAR SCIENCE COLLEGE INDORE SEMINAR TOPIC- COMPUTER HARDWARE GUIDED BY- MISS PAYAL Bordiya SUBMITTED BY- Shefali Sethiya Roshai Harinkhara Slide 2: 2 What is Computer Computer is an electronic data processing device which takes input from the user, process it and provides us the needful result. Now we will see the PC components and it’s most common Periphreals. Slide 3: 3 Hardware & Software Hardware : The physical parts that make up the computer. (everything we can see and touch). Software : not physical, this includes the programs, or applications needed for the functioning and operation of the system. Hardware parts (which can we see & touch) Computer hardware is the heart of computer software. Slide 4: 4 The Computer basically consist of following component – CPU, Input/Output Memory, Bus etc. All these things are collectively knowns as HARDWARE. Slide 5: 5 Input Devices- Input devices are used to enter or key in data in computer. Devices such as- Keyboard- Used to enter information that can be processed or stored in the computer. Pointing Devices- Allows the user to select and point information in the computer. Not only pointing devices point , but also lets you draw sketch and paint. Scanner- Allows the user to make soft copy of a particular document. A scanner dissects the image into bits of graphic information like little dots that your computer can manipulate and store digitally. Keyboard Scanner Slide 6: 6 Output Devices- output devices are used to display the processed data. Devices such as- Display System- Used to display the processed output to the user. The monitor is used as the display system of the pc. Display Card- Used to support visual effects on a pc. The display card is a very important part of the pc for application like games & graphics. The display card is responsible for the quality of the images. This reduces the burden on the CPU. Display System Display Card Slide 7: 7 Printers- Allow the user to make hard copy of a document from its existing electronic from. Fax- This is a device that combines both telecommunication capability of a modem with the hard copy output of a printer. Sound card- # Processing any synthesizing of sound. # Playing music from CDs, MP3s and DVDs. # Recording audio from devices such as microphone. Sound Card Printers Fax Slide 8: 8 Other Devices which are very important in the parts of HARDWARE Devices Such as- Storage devices are used to store data in the computer. That are- # Magnetic Devices- Floppy devices(1.44 MB), Zip drives, Portable drives # Optical Devices- Compact Disc, Digital Video Discs. # Digital Audio Tape- DAT provides digital means of recording music. The DAT provides about 180 min of a music on a single tape. Storage Devices- Communication Devices Communication can be established between computer using different cables, interfaces and wireless devices. Even the peripherals inside the computer are attached together using various ports and cables called as Bus. Connects the PC to a network. The LAN card enable connection to other computers. Telecommunication Modem- Modulates and demodulates information between two devices across a network. It receives digital signal from the computer and converts it to analog from before sending over a telephone network LAN card Slide 9: 9 Important parts which are stands on CPU Microprocessor ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT CONTROL UNIT REGISTERS DATA CACHE PREFTCH UNIT DECODE UNIT INSTRUCTION CACHE BUS UNIT PARTS OF THE MICROPROCESSER IN OUT ALU- performs all the arithmetic calculation CU-controls the flows of the data & information to the other units of the microprocessor Decode Unit- It converts data to a language that is understand by the microprocessor. Instruction cache-Store the instruction that are required to process the data. Prefetch Unit- This reduce the program execution time. Bus unit- It is responsible for the flow of data and instruction from in and out of the microprocessor Data cache- Stores data in the -microprocessor that is further used for processing. Registers-Store data required by the ALU unit. Slide 10: 10 Hard Disk Drives A hard disk is a secondary and permanent data storage device that is placed in the system, it is similar to a human brain, where all the part and present events are stored. It is made up of a magnetic material that helps in storing data by following Magnetic Recording Techniques. A hard disk consists of several circular platters. Each platter has read/write heads on the both the sides. The platters are divided into concentric circles called as tracks, and each tracks is divided into smaller units called Sectors. The read/write head examines and records data in these sectors. The identically aligned tracks on each side of every platter together make up cylinder. Hard Disk With Read/Write Head Note-:The Read/Write Head is used to read and write the data on the Hard Disk . While reading, the head converts the data from binary to a magnetic pulse. The magnetic pulse charges the magnetic coating on the platter and stores the data on the disk. While reading the data, the head reads the magnetic data stored and converts them to binary and sends it to the system. Slide 11: 11 CD-ROM & CD Writer Drives CDs are optical storage devices used to store and distribute various forms of data such as software, music and movies. The data stored on a CD can last for longer period as compared to floppy disks. The CD-ROM drives can only read data from a CD and CD-RW drives can read, as well as write (burn) data on a CD. The CD Writer has two lasers, one for reading data from the CD disc and one laser for writing data on the CD disc. Tiny Brushes CD Disk Pen Drive Pen drive is also called as Thumb drives due to their small sizes. Range-Megabyte to Gigabyte Pen Drive Zip Disk Zip drive/disk is one of the most reliable backup devices of magnetic media This are small and compact diskettes which can relatively inexpensive and durable compared to floppy disk. Slide 12: 12 Protection a system using Backup power system A UPS is a device which maintains continuous supply of electric power to the connected equipment by supplying power from a battery when main power is not available. UPS supplies current to the system for a particular period of time depending on the capacity of the device. In the event of a power failure, using the backup power supply, the system can safely shutdown. UPS system Floppy disk The floppy disk is a magnetic round disk enclosed in a plastic jacket. The size of the first floppy disks was 8inches. The sssfloppy is an external storage device. Floppy Disk Slide 13: 13 Power supply, Cooling and Protection Power supply is an electronic device that provides power to electronic devices and circuits, mostly found in the top corner of the top corner of the system. Function The power supply junction supplies Ac current to the power supply unit (SMPS). However the various components of the systems require Dc. The SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply) unit converts from Ac to Dc for its use. This power is then distributed among the different parts of the computer. Power Supply Fan is used for cooling the system, this system cools in a specific range(40 to 70 degree celsius) of temperature, thus helps the hard disk and disk and other components of the system to work for a longer time. Power supply unit Various types of FAN Plug in power connector to Motherboard Slide 14: 14 I/O Ports & Devices A Port is used to connect the system and a device together, using a connecting cable, so that they can communicate together. Input/Output (I/O) port enables you to connect hardware devices such as the Keyboard, flash drives, mouse, printer and scanner to the system Mouse Keyboard Busses and Ports Monitor/Mouse Port - Round, 6 pin USB - Universal Serial Serial Port (Legacy) Parallel Port Slide 15: 15 Motherboard -Motherboard is the important component of a system. It is a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) where all the component of a system are connected. CPU, Hard drives, Memory and every other part of a system is connected to the motherboard by means of slots, connectors and socket. BUS Architecture Motherboard Slide 16: 16 Memory The term memory refers to a chip that stores data. The processor retrieves information stored in the memory for processing data. The storage capacity of a memory depends on the type of the memory package used. Types of Memory Physical Logical Virtual Flash RAM ROM Extended Upper Conventional Physical Memory- RAM- It is used as a temporary data storage area. Once the system turns off, it loses the data. Stands for RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY ROM- It is a permanent data storage area. It doesn’t lose the data even after the system turns off. Stands for READ ONLY MEMORY The total amount of memory installed in the computer Slide 17: 17 Logical Memory- It defines the way of organization the physical memory such as RAM and Cache. Virtual Memory- Virtual memory is a part of the hard disk which is used as a memory. It has a set of memory addresses and stores the instruction or the data. When processor executes the instructions, it converts Virtual memory addresses into real memory addresses. The main use of the virtual memory is to increase the address space. Flash memory is the high density device. It is a non-volatile memory. It is fast in reading and writing data. This is because it writes data in Blocks. The block size can range from 256 bytes to 16 KB. Flash Memory- Cache Memory- Cache memory is a small and fast memory which is placed between the CPU & RAM. Disk Drive Virtual Memory Physical Memory Chip Working of Virtual Memory Slide 18: 18 ? Slide 19: 19 THANKS You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.