Intro_to_Neuroscience_09_08_08

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From Neuron to Brain: An Introduction to Neuroscience. Mondays & Wednesdays 3:00-4:00pm in Room A-250 Course Organizer: Dr. BJ Casey; TAs: Rebecca Jones and Siobhan Pattwell Week Date Lecturer Topic 1 9/8 Casey Intro to Neuroscience 9/10 Goldstein The Neuron as A Cell 2 9/15 Grafstein Principles of Neuronal Communication 9/17 Harrison Action Potential; Synapses 3 9/22 Harrison Action Potential; Synapses 9/24 Goldstein Fast Synaptic Transmission 4 9/29 Milner/Pickel Neuroanatomy 10/1 Milner/Pickel Neuroanatomy 5 10/6 Milner/Pickel Neuroanatomy/lab 10/8 Milner/Pickel Neuroanatomy/lab 6 10/13 Milner/Pickel Neuroanatomy/lab 10/15 Milner/Pickel Neuroanatomy/lab 7 10/20 Ryan The Synaptic Vesicle 10/22 Ryan Vesicle Fusion and Recycling 8 10/29 Midterm examination

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Week Date Lecturer Topic 9 11/3 Hemmings Slow Synaptic Transmission 11/5 Purpura Inhibition and Integration 10 11/10 Gibson Bioenergetics of the Neuron 11/12 Gibson Bioenergetics of the Neuron 11 11/17 Nimigean Ion Channels 11/19 Goldstein Synaptic Plasticity 13 12/1 Zevin Plasticity 12/3 McCandliss Attention 14 12/8 Amso or Casey Learning and Memory 12/10 Levita Affective Neuroscience 15 12/15 McEwen Neuroendocrinology 12/17 Amso or Casey Human Dev Neuroscience 16 1/12 Ross Brain Development 1/14 Ross Neural Birth Defects 17 1/21 Anderson Cell Signaling in Development 1/26 Final Examination

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Fundamental Neuroscience (Hardcover)by Michael J. Zigmond (Editor), Floyd E. Bloom (Editor), Story C. Landis (Editor), James L. Roberts (Editor), Larry R. Squire (Editor), Robert S. Woolley (Illustrator) The science of the nervous system. Principles of Neural Science (Hardcover)by Eric R. Kandel (Author), James H. Schwartz (Author), Thomas M. Jessell (Author) "THE TASK OF NEURAL SCIENCE is to understand the mental processes by which we perceive, act, learn, and remember..."

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http://www.brainvoyager.com/ Brain Voyager Brain Tutor http://web.sfn.org/Template.cfm?Section=Publications Brain Facts

Neuroscience : 

Neuroscience Trying to understand the brain and behavior how we can make it better! Development, Disease and Treatment

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Franz Gall 1800s

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Phineas Gage, September 1848

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METHODS MRI-based morphometry Behavior Genotyping Using development as probe Lesion ERP

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Can we localize behavior to the brain? Positron Emmision Tomography (PET) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Electroencephalography (EEG) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Lesion Genes

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Axial View Coronal View Sagittal View Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Developing Human Brain Structural MRI to track changes in size and shape of neuroanatomical structures with development Functional MRI (fMRI) to track changes in brain and behavior with development Casey et al 2005 Current Opinions in Neurobiology A B C Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to track strengthening of connectivity of fiber tracts with development

BOLD Effect : 

BOLD Effect Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Local increase in neural activity leads to Increase in local blood flow, which results in Increase in ratio of oxyHg to deoxyHg, which Reduces local inhomogeneities in the magnetic field Increased MR signal return

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LOOK LISTEN SPEAK THINK

Considerations when using Pediatric Imaging : 

Casey 2002 Science Considerations when using Pediatric Imaging

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Example: Dopamine Transporter DAT1-genotype: Striatal activation is significantly attenuated for individuals homozygous for the DAT1 10R-allele during performance of impulse control task. GENETIC IMAGING

How can we assay behaviorin a precise way? : 

How can we assay behaviorin a precise way? Behavioral assay must be reliable, valid and simple enough to link to biology. Two approaches in psychology Substractive Methodology Additive Logic

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Question: IF the mind is a set of operations carried out by the brain THEN how do we measure them? Behavioral Paradigms (Reaction times and Accuracy)

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Subtractive and Additive Logic) Donders (1868) “Subtractive Method” To determine time necessary for simple mental events. Interested in process B Task involves A, B and C Devise task as a comparison with only A and C. Then (A+B+C) - (A +C)

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Subtractive Logic) Example: Override Attention Conflict (flanker task)

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Subtractive Logic) Example: Override Attention Conflict (flanker task) Task- press right button if Center arrow points right and vice versa.

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Subtractive Logic) Example: Override Attention Conflict (flanker task) Task- press right button if Center arrow points right and vice versa. A B C A and C < > < > > >

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Subtractive Logic) Example: Override Attention Conflict (flanker task) Task- press right button if Center arrow points right and vice versa. A B C A and C < > < > > > Mean RT = 546 msec 496 msec = 50 msec

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Subtractive Logic) Example: Override Attention Conflict (flanker task) Task- press right button if Center arrow points right and vice versa. A B C A and C < > < > > > Mean RT = 546 msec 496 msec = 50 msec Both tasks involve encoding info and making a response

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Impossible to assure task with only A + C contain exactly A and C. Sternberg (1966) Proposed “Additive Factors Logic” Approach Determine how long process B takes by having the process be repeated ( A + B + B + C) - ( A + B + C) = event

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X Memory Set

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X Memory Set Probe Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Compare Z to X Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Z X Y

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Compare Z to X Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y No Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X X Y C Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y No Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X X Y C Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y No Z Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X X Y C Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y No Compare Z to X Z Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X X Y C Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y Z Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X X Y C Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y Compare Z to C Z Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X X Y C Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y No Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y No Compare Z to C Z Z X Y Z

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Memory Set Size 1 2 3 Mean Reaction Time (msec) 600 500 400 RT = 397 + 38 msec

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Sternberg (1966) Additive Factors Logic Example: Short Term Memory X X Y C Memory Set Probe Scan Memory Respond Compare Z to X Yes Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y Yes Compare Z to X Compare Z to Y Yes Compare Z to C X X X Y X

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Memory Set Size 1 2 3 Mean Reaction Time (msec) 600 500 400 No Yes

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Activity increases w/ Memory Load

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Inferring Mental & Neural Processes (Subtractive Logic) Donders (1868) “Subtractive Method” To determine time necessary for simple mental events. Interested in process B Task involves A, B and C Devise task as a comparison with only A and C. Then (A+B+C) - (A +C)

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Inferring Mental Process from Reaction times (Additive Logic) Impossible to assure task with only A + C contain exactly A and C. Sternberg (1966) Proposed “Additive Factors Logic” Approach Determine how long process B takes by having the process be repeated ( A + B + B + C) - ( A + B + C) = event