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About Me : About Me Lead developer at Schawk, Inc. for a DAM/Workflow solution called PaRTS I’ve been working with web technologies since 1995, Java developer since 1998 Spring Framework user since mid-2003 My articles and ramblings: http://www.zabada.com/technology/ (I just started this site in April 2005, it’s growing, but not a ton of stuff there yet) What is the Spring Framework? : What is the Spring Framework? What is the Spring Framework? : What is the Spring Framework? Spring is a Lightweight Application Framework Where Struts, WebWork and others can be considered Web frameworks, Spring addresses all tiers of an application Spring provides the plumbing so that you don’t have to! Spring Framework History : Spring Framework History Started 2002/2003 by Rod Johnson and Juergen Holler Started as a framework developed around Rod Johnson’s book Expert One-on-One J2EE Design and Development Spring 1.0 Released March 2004 2004/2005 Spring is emerging as a leading full-stack Java/J2EE application framework Spring == J2EE Application Server? : Spring == J2EE Application Server? Spring is NOT a J2EE application server Spring can integrate nicely with J2EE application servers (or any Java environment) Spring can, in many cases, elegantly replace services traditionally provided by J2EE application servers Lessons Learned from Struts : Lessons Learned from Struts Before Struts, everyone wrote their own front controllers (or YIKES! put their controller logic in JSP) After Struts, the custom front controllers could be thrown out Developers focus on solving business problems Productivity Gain! But with Struts (and most of the other web frameworks) you still have to write your own business delegates or service layers… Spring Can Help! : Spring Can Help! Spring brings a consistent structure to your entire application Spring provides a consistent way to glue your whole application together Spring provides elegant integration points with standard and defacto-standard interfaces: Hibernate, JDO, TopLink, EJB, RMI, JNDI, JMS, Web Services, Struts, etc. Just as Struts did on the web tier, we can realize huge productivity gains by not having to write the common integration points across your application The Spring Framework Mission Statement : The Spring Framework Mission Statement From springframework.org The authors of Spring believe that: J2EE should be easier to use It's best to program to interfaces, rather than classes. Spring reduces the complexity cost of using interfaces to zero. JavaBeans offer a great way of configuring applications. OO design is more important than any implementation technology, such as J2EE. Checked exceptions are overused in Java. A framework shouldn't force you to catch exceptions you're unlikely to be able to recover from. Testability is essential, and a framework such as Spring should help make your code easier to test. Spring Framework Mission Statement (continued) : Spring Framework Mission Statement (continued) The authors of Spring aim that: Spring should be a pleasure to use Your application code should not depend on Spring APIs Spring should not compete with good existing solutions, but should foster integration. (For example, JDO and Hibernate are great O/R mapping solutions. We don't need to develop another one.) Spring Overview : Spring Overview from springframework.org Note: Spring distribution comes as one big jar file and alternatively as a series of smaller jars broken out along the above lines (so you can include only what you need) Spring is Non-Invasive : Spring is Non-Invasive What does that mean? You are not forced to import or extend any Spring APIs An invasive API takes over your code. Anti-patterns: EJB forces you to use JNDI Struts forces you to extend Action Invasive frameworks are inherently difficult to test. You have to stub the runtime that is supplied by the application server But really, what IS Spring? : But really, what IS Spring? At it’s core, Spring provides: An Inversion of Control Container Also known as Dependency Injection (Fowler’s term) An AOP Framework Spring provides a proxy-based AOP framework You can alternatively integrate with AspectJ or AspectWerkz A Service Abstraction Layer Consistent integration with various standard and 3rd party APIs These together enable you to write powerful, scalable applications using POJOs. Seriously though, what IS Spring? : Seriously though, what IS Spring? Spring at it’s core, is a framework for wiring up your entire application BeanFactories are the heart of Spring BeanFactories : BeanFactories A BeanFactory is typically configured in an XML file with the root element: <beans> The XML contains one or more <bean> elements id (or name) attribute to identify the bean class attribute to specify the fully qualified class BeanFactories : BeanFactories By default, beans are treated as singletons Can also be prototypes Here is an example: <beans> <bean id=“widgetService” class=“com.zabada.base.WidgetService”> <property name=“poolSize”> <!—-property value here--> </property> </bean> </beans> The bean’s ID The bean’s fully- qualified classname Maps to a setPoolSize() call Property Values for BeanFactories : Property Values for BeanFactories Strings and Numbers Arrays and Collections <property name=“size”><value>42</value></property> <property name=“name”><value>Jim</value></property> <property name=“hobbies”> <list> <value>Basket Weaving</value> <value>Break Dancing</value> </list> </property> Property Values for BeanFactories (continued) : Property Values for BeanFactories (continued) The real magic comes in when you can set a property on a bean that refers to another bean in the configuration: This is the basic concept of Inversion of Control <bean name=“widgetService” class=“com.zabada.base.WidgetServiceImpl”> <property name=“widgetDAO”> <ref bean=“myWidgetDAO”/> </property> </bean> calls setWidgetDAO(myWidgetDAO) where myWidgetDAO is another bean defined in the configuration Dependency Injection(Inversion of Control) : Dependency Injection(Inversion of Control) Complicated sounding terms for a fairly simple concept The “Hollywood Principle”: Don’t call me, I’ll call you Dependencies used from within a bean aren’t asked for outwardly, but are injected into the bean by the container Dependency Injection(Inversion of Control) : Dependency Injection(Inversion of Control) Eliminates lookup code from within your application Allows for pluggablity and hot swapping Promotes good OO design Enables reuse of existing code Makes your application extremely testable A Very Special BeanFactory:the ApplicationContext : A Very Special BeanFactory:the ApplicationContext An ApplicationContext is a BeanFactory, but adds “framework” features such as: i18n messages Event notifications This is what you will probably most often use in your Spring applications AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming) : AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming) AOP decomposes a system into concerns, instead of objects. Deals with "aspects" that cross-cut across the code and can be difficult or impossible to modularize with OOP The most common example given is logging Code for doing logging typically must be scattered all over a system With AOP, you can declare, for example, that a system should write a log record at the beginning and end of all method invocations. AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming) : AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming) AOP enables the delivery of services to POJOs Spring provides pre-packaged AOP services: Declarative Transaction Management Security Logging You can write custom AOP services for: Auditing Caching Custom security Service Abstraction Layers : Service Abstraction Layers Spring provides abstraction for: Transaction Management JTA, JDBC, others Data Access JDBC, Hibernate, JDO, TopLink, iBatis Email Remoting EJB, Web Services, RMI, Hessian/Burlap Service Abstraction Layers : Service Abstraction Layers Benefits: No implicit contracts with JNDI, etc. Insulates you from the underlying APIs Greater reusability Spring abstractions always consist of interfaces This makes testing simpler For data access, Spring uses a generic transaction infrastructure and DAO exception hierarchy that is common across all supported platforms Spring on the Web Tier : Spring on the Web Tier Spring integrates nicely with Struts, WebWork, JSF, Tapestry, Velocity and other web frameworks Spring also provides it’s own web framework, Spring Web MVC Spring on the Web Tier – Spring MVC : Spring on the Web Tier – Spring MVC The Spring MVC Framework offers a simple interface based infrastructure for handing web MVC architectures Spring MVC components are treated as first-class Spring beans Other Spring beans can easily be injected into Spring MVC components Spring MVC components are easy to test Spring MVC – Key Interfaces : Spring MVC – Key Interfaces Controller (org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.Controller) Must implement ModelAndView handleRequest(request,response) This is the base controller interface, comparable to the notion of a Struts Action. View (org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.View) Must implement void render( model, request, response) This is the MVC view for a web interaction. Implementations are responsible for rendering content, and exposing the model. Model To complete the MVC trio, note that the model is typically handled as a java.util.Map which is returned with the view the values of the model are available, for example in a JSP, using a <jsp:useBean/> where the id corresponds to the key value in the Map Spring on the Web Tier: Integration with Other Frameworks : Spring on the Web Tier: Integration with Other Frameworks Spring integrates nicely with other web frameworks with two methodologies: Look up Spring beans within Controllers/Actions via the convenience static method: WebApplicationContextUtils.getWebApplicationContext( servletContext).getBean(“beanName”) Configure the Controllers/Actions for the web framework in a Spring BeanFactory and then use Spring provided proxies in the actual web framework configuration When available, this methodology is preferred This approach lets you design your Controllers/Actions with dependency injection and makes your Controller/Actions more testable My Spring Recipes : My Spring Recipes My Spring recipes and examples: http://www.zabada.com/technology/Wiki.jsp?page=SpringRecipes Trivial, but hopefully useful examples of “Getting Things Done” with the Spring Framework Based around an entity (Widget) and a DAO interface (WidgetDAO) with different WidgetDAO implementations and various view technologies On to the examples… : On to the examples… ( See http://www.zabada.com/technology/Wiki.jsp?page=SpringRecipes ) Spring Related Tools and Add-Ons : Spring Related Tools and Add-Ons ACEGI Security - comprehensive security services for the Spring Framework Spring IDE - graphical user interface for the configuration files used by the Spring Framework Spring BeanDoc - tool that facilitates documentation and graphing of Spring bean factories and application context files XDoclet Spring Tags - support for generating Spring XML config files from annotations in Java classes (you could also use JDK1.5 annotations to achieve this) Spring Web Flow - for web applications with demanding page flow requirements AppFuse Not really a tool or add-on, but AppFuse is Matt Raible's project to jumpstart your Java web projects. It uses Spring at it's core and studying it is a great way to learn about Spring. Spring Framework .NET – Spring Clone for the Dark Side ? Spring Framework / Spring Related References : Spring Framework / Spring Related References The Official Spring Reference Manual http://www.springframework.org/docs/reference/ Introduction to Spring by Rod Johnson http://www.theserverside.com/articles/article.tss?l=SpringFramework Spring in Action by Craig Walls and Ryan Breidenbach Pro Spring by Rob Harrop and Jan Machacek J2EE Without EJB by Rod Johnson and Juergen Holler Expert One-on-One J2EE Design and Development by Rod Johnson Spring Developers Notebook by Bruce Tate and Justin Gehtland Better, Faster, Lighter Java by Bruce Tate and Justin Gehtland Spring Live by Matt Raible Professional Java Development with the Spring Framework by many of the core Spring developers: Coming in July 2005 Wrap Up : Wrap Up Questions/Comments? Feedback is appreciated! Email me: firstname.lastname@example.org We’re Hiring For A Few Positions Senior Java Developer Mid-level Java Developer Spring/Hibernate and other relevant Java technologies Let me know if you’re interested: email@example.com Credits : Credits Thanks to the Spring Framework Team. See springframework.org Much of the content in this presentation was inspired by presentations by Rod Johnson and Craig Walls You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.