CRYPTOGRAPHY : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 1 CRYPTOGRAPHY BOOPATHY.R,
MAHA COLLEGE OF ENGG,
SALEM. Secret Key Cryptography : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 2 Secret Key Cryptography Single key used to encrypt and decrypt.
Key must be known by both parties.
Assuming we live in a hostile environment (otherwise - why the need for cryptography?), it may be hard to share a secret key. Public Key Cryptography(a.k.a. asymmetric cryptography) : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 3 Public Key Cryptography(a.k.a. asymmetric cryptography) Relatively new field - 1975 (as far as we know, the NSA is not talking).
Each entity has 2 keys:
private key (a secret)
public key (well known). Slide 4: Netprog: Cryptgraphy 4 Private keys are used for decrypting.
Public keys are used for encrypting.
private key Using Keys Digital Signature : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 5 Digital Signature Public key cryptography is also used to provide digital signatures.
plaintext signed message
signed message plaintext
public key Transmitting over an insecure channel. : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 6 Transmitting over an insecure channel. Alice wants to send Bob a private message.
Apublic is Alice’s public key.
Aprivate is Alice’s private key.
Bpublic is Bob’s public key.
Bprivate is Bob’s private key. Slide 7: Netprog: Cryptgraphy 7 Hello Bob,Wanna get together? Alice Bob encrypt using Bpublic decrypt using Bprivate OK Alice,Your place or mine? : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 8 OK Alice,Your place or mine? Alice Bob decrypt using Aprivate encrypt using Apublic Bob’s Dilemma : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 9 Bob’s Dilemma Nobody can read the message from Alice, but anyone could produce it.
How does Bob know that the message was really sent from Alice?
Bob may be comforted to know that only Alice can read his reply. Alice can sign her message! : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 10 Alice can sign her message! Alice can create a digital signature and prove she sent the message (or someone with knowledge of her private key).
The signature can be a message digest encrypted with Aprivate. Message Digest : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 11 Message Digest Also known as “hash function” or “one-way transformation”.
Transforms a message of any length and computes a fixed length string.
We want it to be hard to guess what the message was given only the digest.
Guessing is always possible. Alice’s Signature : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 12 Alice’s Signature Alice feeds her original message through a hash function and encrypts the message digest with Aprivate.
Bob can decrypt the message digest using Apublic.
Bob can compute the message digest himself.
If the 2 message digests are identical, Bob knows Alice sent the message. Slide 13: Netprog: Cryptgraphy 13 Alice Bob Sign with Aprivate check signature using Apublic encrypt using Bpublic decrypt using Bprivate Revised Scheme Why the digest? : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 14 Why the digest? Alice could just encrypt her name, and then Bob could decrypt it with Apublic.
Why wouldn’t this be sufficient? Implications : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 15 Implications Suppose Alice denies she sent the message?
Bob can prove that only someone with Alice’s key could have produced the message. Another possible problem : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 16 Another possible problem Suppose Bill receives a message from Alice including a digital signature.
“meet me at the library tonight”
Bill sends the same message to Joe so that it looks like the message came from Alice.
Bill includes the digital signature from the message Alice sent to him.
Joe is convinced Alice sent the message! Solution? : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 17 Solution? Always start your messages with:
Create a digest from the encrypted message and sign that digest.
There are many other schemes as well. Speed : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 18 Speed Secret key encryption/decryption algorithms are much faster than public key algorithms.
Many times a combination is used:
use public key cryptography to share a secret key.
use the secret key to encrypt the bulk of the communication. Secure Protocols : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 19 Secure Protocols There are a growing number of applications for secure protocols:
homework submission Secure Protocols : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 20 Secure Protocols Many application protocols include the use of cryptography as part of the application level protocol.
The cryptographic scheme employed is part of the protocol.
If stronger cryptographic tools become available we need to change the protocol. SSL and TLS : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 21 SSL and TLS Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a different approach - a new layer is added that provides a secure channel over a TCP only link.
TLS is Transport Layer Security (IETF standard based on SSL). SSL layer : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 22 SSL layer Advantages of SSL/TLS : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 23 Advantages of SSL/TLS Independent of application layer
Includes support for negotiated encryption techniques.
easy to add new techniques.
Possible to switch encryption algorithms in the middle of a session. HTTPS Usage : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 24 HTTPS Usage HTTPS is HTTP running over SSL.
used for most secure web transactions.
HTTPS server usually runs on port 443.
Include notion of verification of server via a certificate.
Central trusted source of certificates. QUERIES? : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 25 QUERIES? THANK YOU! : Netprog: Cryptgraphy 26 THANK YOU!