Paediatric two day course day 2 new 2-1-

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By: saps62 (115 month(s) ago)

where is day 1

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PAEDIATRIC TWO DAY FIRST AID COURSE Day Two

Ground rules : 

Ground rules Switch off mobile phones. Ask lots of questions. Get involved & do the practicals. Don’t break your neck for toilet. Help your self to a drink as required. 11

COURSE OBJECTIVES : 

COURSE OBJECTIVES By the end of day 2 you will: Be able to do everything covered in day one. Be able to assess and treat a choking casualty. Be able to recognise and treat seizures, diabetes, asthma and poisoning. Be able to identify and treat common illnesses and medical conditions. Know how to move casualties. o

CAUSES OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS : 

CAUSES OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS Head injury Asthma Hypothermia Heat Stroke Asphyxia Diabetes Seizures Drugs Fainting Poisoning Fluid loss Heart Attack a

ASTHMA : 

ASTHMA Signs and Symptoms Sufferer may appear anxious with difficulty in breathing out. Difficulty in speaking with blueness of face. Treatment Stay calm, send other people away and reassure sufferer. Sit sufferer down leaning slightly forward. Support elbows on table with hands under chin. Ensure good supply of fresh air. Give them their own medication. If symptoms persist, seek medical attention. o An inflammation of the breathing tubes of the lungs.

DIABETES : 

DIABETES HYPERGLYCAEMIA (High Sugar) Symptoms Warm dry skin, rapid pulse and breathing. Fruity/Sweet breath and excessive thirst. Pulse Rapid and full. Drowsiness and possible unconsciousness. Treatment Urgent removal to hospital. Be prepared to resuscitate. 1 1

DIABETES : 

DIABETES HYPOGLYCAEMIA (Low Sugar) Symptoms Pallor, Profuse sweating, Cold clammy skin. Rapid and strong pulse, Shallow breathing. Possibly trembling, Confused or aggressive behaviour. Weakness, may become unconscious. Level of response diminishing. Pulse Rapid and weak. May carry Medical tag. 1

DIABETES : 

DIABETES HYPOGLYCAEMIA (Low Sugar) Treatment Sit or lie casualty down. If conscious give sweet drink. If casualty responds quickly, give more food and drink. If unconscious place some jam under their tongue, this should bring them round. Recommend they see their Doctor. 1

FEBRILE SEIZURES : 

FEBRILE SEIZURES Symptoms Child may be flushed, sweaty with very hot forehead. May clench their fists and stiffen and arch their backs. Eyes may roll upwards or be fix. They may hold their breath making face blue. May become unconscious. Arising from infection or high temperature above 37.7°C. 1 1

FEBRILE SEIZURES : 

FEBRILE SEIZURES Treatment Don’t try to hold child down when fitting. Move all furniture away from child. Place pillows or soft padding round child for protection. Undress child and cool with lots of fresh air. Don’t let child become overcooled. When seizure over place in recovery position. Re-check temperature. Be prepared to resuscitate. If they lose consciousness call an ambulance. 1 1

EPILEPTIC SEIZURES : 

EPILEPTIC SEIZURES Symptoms Child may lose consciousness. May clench their teeth. Stiffness, followed by rhythmic jerking of the limbs. Involuntary urination. Frothing of the mouths. Breathing may stop. Seizure should only last few minutes. May be followed by deep sleep. Arising from a disturbance in the brain. 1 1

EPILEPTIC SEIZURES : 

EPILEPTIC SEIZURES Treatment Don’t try to hold child down when fitting. Move all furniture away from child. Place pillows or soft padding round child for protection. Don’t place anything in child mouth. When seizure over check breathing. If breathing place in recovery position. Be prepared to resuscitate. If unconscious for more than 10 min’s call ambulance. If first seizure take to doctor. Arising from a disturbance in the brain. 1 1

FAINTING : 

FAINTING Treatment Lay casualty down and raise legs allowing blood to vital organs. Carry out Primary Survey. Allow plenty of fresh air. Remove cause of stress. Caused by poor nervous control of the blood vessels and heart reducing supply to brain. Symptoms Loss of consciousness. Slow pulse. Pale clammy skin. 1 1 1

Choking Adult : 

Choking Adult Treatment Stand person up and encourage them to cough up object. Bend them fwd and commence back slapping (five times). Carry out abdominal thrusts (five times). Repeat back slaps and abdominal thrusts. If unconscious dial 999. Then use chest compressions. 1 Symptoms Trouble speaking and breathing. Point or grasp their neck.

Treatment for Choking Baby : 

Treatment for Choking Baby Give up to 5 sharp slaps on the back. Turn onto front and remove obstruction. 1

Treatment for Choking Baby : 

Treatment for Choking Baby Place fingers on lower part of breastbone a fingers breadth below nipple line. Give up to 5 thrusts pressing downwards and forwards. Check mouth for obstruction. 1

Treatment for Choking Baby : 

Treatment for Choking Baby Repeat 5 back slaps followed by 5 chest thrusts. Do this up to 3 times, checking mouth between each set. Get help. Start CPR as required. 1

Treatment for Choking Child : 

Treatment for Choking Child Stand child up. Support round waist with one hand. Give up to 5 sharp back slaps with other hand. Check mouth for obstruction. 1

Treatment for Choking Child : 

Treatment for Choking Child Make fist with one hand. Hold fist thumb inwards against lower half of breastbone. Grasp fist with other hand. Pull sharply inwards and upwards. Do this up to 5 times. 1

Treatment for Choking Child : 

Treatment for Choking Child Move fist to abdomen. Pull sharply inwards and upwards up to 5 times. Repeat back slaps, chest thrusts and abdominal thrusts up to 3 times. Get help. Start CPR as required. 1

Hyperventilation : 

Hyperventilation Take casualty away from the problem. Place paper bag over face and tell to breath slowly. Ensure bag covers both mouth and nose. Use bag about 10 times. Then without for 15 Sec’s. Repeat as required.

Breath Holding : 

Breath Holding Recognition Child cries, breathes in but does not breath out. May go blue in face and stiff. May go unconscious. Treatment Do not shake child. Do not make a fuss. Blow on their face. Be prepared to resuscitate. 1

Croup - Virus : 

Croup - Virus 1 Symptoms Cold symptoms. A hoarse voice. Rasping breathing. Barking cough. Treatment Mild croup neither requires or responds to treatment. Vaporizers must be cool. Cough suppressants. Give plenty of fluids. Give fever medicine for comfort. 1

Epiglottitis - Virus : 

Epiglottitis - Virus 1 Symptoms Starts with Croup symptoms. High fever, drooling with difficulty in swallowing. Restlessness and reluctant to lie down. Respiratory obstruction. Treatment Be prepared to resuscitate. Immediate medical care. This is a very dangerous infection of the epiglottis. 1

Sickle Cell Anaemia : 

Sickle Cell Anaemia 1 Symptoms Pain in arms, legs, back and stomach. More prone to colds, coughs, sore throats and fevers. Feel lethargic and ill whilst looking anaemic. May have slight jaundice in the white of the eye. Treatment Talk to parents about how best to treat them. Make sure the child is always warm and dry. Don’t let them become dehydrated, give plenty to drink. If the suddenly become unwell or complain of severe abdominal or chest pain, headache, neck stiffness or drowsiness, they need urgent hospital treatment. Sickle cell is caused by an inherited disorder of the haemoglobin structure. 1

Chickenpox - Virus : 

Chickenpox - Virus Fever and breathing difficulties. Rash – Red itchy. Becomes fluid filled blisters. Infectious until spots scab over. More severe in adults. No cure just time and rest.

Measles - Virus : 

Measles - Virus Airborne. Symptoms develop 9-11 days after contact. Rash – red circular raised 3 – 4 days. Fever and runny nose & eyes. After 4th day spots and fever go. No cure just time.

Measles : 

Measles Common complications Diarrhoea. Vomiting. Abdominal pain. Ear and Chest infection.

Measles : 

Measles Serious complications 1 in 1000 Inflammation of the brain. Headache. Drowsiness. Seizures & Coma. Mental retardation.

German Measles- Rubella : 

German Measles- Rubella Airborne. Rash & fever not as bad as measles. Rash starts on face & spreads to chest & back. Incubation up to 2-3 weeks. No cure just time.

Mumps - Virus : 

Mumps - Virus Airborne. Swelling of the Salivary glands. Pain in the glands. Difficulty chewing & swallowing. Possible fever and headache. Swollen testis after puberty. Incubation up to 2-3 weeks. No cure just time.

Septicaemia – Blood Poisoning : 

Septicaemia – Blood Poisoning 1 Symptoms Suddenly becomes seriously ill. High fever with headache. Complains of chills. Rapid breathing. Often clouding in and out of consciousness. Skin rash or jaundice Treatment Urgent hospital treatment with antibiotics. Rapid multiplication of bacteria and presence of their toxins in the blood. 1

Meningitis - baby : 

Meningitis - baby Symptoms High pitched moaning cry. Difficult to wake. Refuses food. Vomiting. Pale blotchy skin. Red/Purple spot do not disappear (glass test). Inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord as a result of an infection. 1

Meningitis - child : 

Meningitis - child Symptoms Headache. Stiff neck. Photophobia. Vomiting. Pale blotchy skin. Red/Purple spot do not disappear (glass test) 1

Meningitis : 

Meningitis Treatment Urgent hospital treatment with antibiotics. Also people in contact. 1

POISONING : 

POISONING Any substance (solid, liquid or gas) that causes damage when it enters the body in sufficient quantity. Poisons can enter the body in four ways. INGESTED-Swallowed, accidentally or on purpose. INHALED-Breathed in, accessing the blood stream. ABSORBED-Through the skin. INJECTED-Through the skin, direct into tissue or blood stream. 1

Swallowed Chemicals : 

Swallowed Chemicals Symptoms Pain or burning sensation in gullet. Burns or blistering around mouth. 1 Treatment Wipe away chemicals from mouth. Read instructions on label. Take child and chemical to hospital. If unconscious maintain airway. If giving CPR use face shield. 1

Alcohol Poisoning : 

Alcohol Poisoning 1 Symptoms Alcohol smell on breath. Flushed face, sweating. Nausea and vomiting. Impaired consciousness. Treatment Keep them awake. Check what they drunk. Keep them warm as alcohol dilates blood vessels, leading to hypothermia. Get help. If unconscious maintain airway. Resuscitate as required.

Drug Poisoning : 

Drug Poisoning 1 Symptoms Nausea,vomiting and diarrhoea. Abdominal pain. Drowsiness and possible unconsciousness. Hyperactive behaviour. Treatment Check in their mouth. Tell them to spit out and pills. Keep them awake. Don’t walk them round. Get help. If unconscious maintain airway. Resuscitate as required.

Plant Poisoning : 

Plant Poisoning 1 Symptoms Abdominal pain. Nausea and vomiting. Possible diarrhoea later. Treatment Check inside their mouth. Keep sample of plant. Get help. If unconscious maintain airway. Resuscitate as required.

Snake Bite : 

Snake Bite 1 Symptoms A pair of puncture marks. Severe pain and swelling around bite. Vomiting and disturbed vision. Breathing difficulties. Increased salvation and sweating. Treatment Lie down with bite below heart. Gently wash round wound. Apply light compression bandage above wound on affected limb. Keep still as possible to stop spread of poison. Urgent hospital treatment. Resuscitate as required.

ALLERGY & ANAPHYLAXIS AWARENESS : 

ALLERGY & ANAPHYLAXIS AWARENESS

Allergy : 

Allergy Allergy means ‘altered working’ Coined in early 20th century by scientists who injected venom into dogs and saw a fatal reaction. Used in two senses, most people use it to mean an illness produced by a reaction of our immune system to some protein or other substance.

Allergy : 

Allergy There are two types of allergic reaction Immediate hypersensitivity a very quick reaction to allergen usually very obvious within 15 minutes. Causes hay fever, allergic asthma, food allergy, and some drug allergy Delayed hypersensitivity slower occurring over a longer period of time - skin rash (eczema). Causes reaction to certain metals on skin, cosmetics, sticking plaster and so on.

What causes an allergic reaction? : 

What causes an allergic reaction? The substance that causes an allergic response is known as an allergen. Allergens contain protein, and almost anything can be an allergen for someone. The most common are: House dust mites Pollen from trees and grasses Cat & dogs Insects such as wasps & bees Milk, eggs & peanuts Less common are tree nuts, fruit, latex and shellfish.

What causes an allergic reaction? : 

What causes an allergic reaction? The persons immune system believes that the invading allergens are damaging and in response the body produces an antibody to attack them. This in turn leads to other cells releasing further chemicals which together cause irritation, inflammation and the symptoms of an allergic response.

Allergy to insect stings – wasps & bees : 

Allergy to insect stings – wasps & bees You cannot be allergic to either insect unless you have been stung by either of the insect It is unusual to be allergic to both insects

What is anaphylaxis? : 

What is anaphylaxis? An excessive reaction of the immune system to the presence of a foreign body, which wrongly perceived as a threat. In its most severe form, it may be life threatening. (Anaphylaxis Campaign 2003)

What happens in the body during anaphylaxis? : 

What happens in the body during anaphylaxis? These substances cause blood vessels to relax, which makes them leaky and can cause swellings and a fall in blood pressure. At the same time they can make the breathing passages become narrow They stick to cells in our bodies releasing substances that have powerful effects on our blood vessels and air passages The body makes the wrong kinds of antibody to protein in our food or to something like a drug.

ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK : 

ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK Treatment Adrenaline injection urgently required. Get help. Monitor continuously and be prepared to resuscitate. Resuscitation will be difficult due to swelling of the throat. Remove to hospital. Symptoms Dangerous allergic reaction to foreign protein. Swelling of eyelids, tongue, lips and neck. Difficulty in breathing with rapid weak pulse. 1 1

Methods of Casualty handling : 

Methods of Casualty handling Drowning

Methods of Casualty handling : 

Methods of Casualty handling Recovery position baby

Methods of Casualty handling : 

Methods of Casualty handling Blanket carry

When to call doctor : 

When to call doctor Raised temperature of 39 deg C. Raised temperature with seizures. Body temperature below 35 deg C. Baby vomiting for more than six hours. Baby or child prolonged violent vomiting. Child complains of dizzy spells. Baby or child goes off food suddenly. 1

When to take child to hospital : 

When to take child to hospital Lost consciousness. Stopped or difficulty in breathing. Deep wound with or without embedded object. Any burn. Head injury. Suspected broken bone. Foreign object in ear, nose or eye Animal or insect bite. Eaten a poisonous substance. 11

Any Questions? : 

Any Questions?

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