1. [INTRO] OVERVIEW_OF_MORAL_SITUATIONS_AND_CONTEMPORARY_MORAL_TRENDS

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COURSE SYLLABUS COURSE TITLE : CHRISTIAN ETHICS COURSE CODE/CREDITS: Philosophy 5/Theology 3 “But only God who created man to His own image and ransomed him from sins, provides a fully adequate answer to questions…revealed in Christ His Son who became man. Whoever follows after Christ, the perfect man becomes himself more of a man.”

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COURSE SYLLABUS COURSE DESCRIPTION The course deals with the study of man as a moral being called by God to respond in freedom and responsibility to attain the fullness of life in Christ. It seeks to familiarize the students with the foundations of morality that would equip them with principles and guidelines to confront contemporary moral situations. This also deals with the challenges of Christian Discipleship and the Christian invitation to moral growth through the study of grace, sin, conversion and virtues.

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COURSE SYLLABUS General objectives : At the end of the course, the students are expected to: Establish the link between the “external ritual expression of Christian faith and authentic discipleship following Christ in action” (ECCE: Moral Law – Nos. 5& 6) Acquire ethical and religious values which would affect changes of attitude, behavior and values (CA # 60) in the light of contemporary moral problem .

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COURSE SYLLABUS B. Specific Objectives At the end of this course, students are expected to: Acquaint themselves with the moral dimension of the Christian Faith ; Trace the roots of contemporary moral situations ; Acquire facility in making moral-decisions , through the study of the human person as moral agent; Understand the DECALOGUE in the light of some of today’s moral issues . Appreciate the challenges of Christian Discipleship . Value Christ’s invitation to grow morally through the study of the role of grace, sin, conversion, and virtues.

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COURSE OUTLINE Introduction: Understanding Contemporary Moral Situations A. Moral Situations: An Overview B. Contemporary Moral Trends and Their Roots C. Notions of Morality 1. Popular Notions

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Unit I: THE HUMAN PERSON’S ETHICS OF BEING AND DOING Christian Ethics A. The Meaning of Morality and Ethics 1. What Morality Is: Clarifications and Terms B. Christian Ethics : The Following of Christ 1. Our Call to Love 2. Characteristics of Christian Morality 3. Sources of Christian Ethics

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II. Human Person (as a Moral Being) WHO AM I? The Christian Concept of the Human Person 1. Created in God’s image 2. Man as Body-Soul unity 3.The Existence of Original Sin 4. Living in Christ: A life of Grace

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COURSE OUTLINE B. Man as Person 1. Intelligent and Free 2. Endowed with dignity and inalienable rights 3. Always an End, never as Means C. Christian Life as Freedom in Christ 1. Meaning of Christian Liberty 2. The Ethics of Being and the Ethics of Doing 3. Freedom “from” Towards Freedom “for”

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COURSE OUTLINE D. Freedom and Moral Act 1. The Morality of Human Acts a. Human Acts and Acts of Man b. Constituents of Human Acts c. Determinants of Morality d. Modifiers of Voluntariness 2. Sources of Morality and their inter- relatedness a. Object b. Intention c. Circumstances 3. Principle of Double-effect

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UNIT II: REALIZING HUMAN DIGNITY & GENUINE FREEDOM III. Norms and Guidelines: WHAT WILL DIRECT ME? A. The Objective Norm: Law 1. Definition and Nature of Law 2. Elements of True Law 3. Kinds of Law: a. Eternal Law b. Natural Law c. Human Law 4. Beatitudes and Sermon on the Mount: Basic Christian Character

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III. Norms and Guidelines B. The Subjective Norm: Conscience 1. Nature and Definition 2. Kinds of Conscience and their Binding Force 3.Development of Moral Conscience 4. Christian Formation C. Concrete Guidelines for Making a Moral Decision

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COURSE OUTLINE Sin and Conversion: WHAT HAS BECOME OF ME? A. Divine Love and Sin 1. Nature of Sin a. Biblical Views of Sin b. Theological Reflection on Sin c. Mortal, Grave and Venial Sin

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COURSE OUTLINE Sin and Conversion A. Divine Love and Sin 2. Kinds of Sin a. kinds of Internal Sins b. Sin of Omission and Commission c. Capital Sins

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COURSE OUTLINE Sin and Conversion A. Divine Love and Sin 3. Sources of Sin a. Impact of a Sinfully distorted World b. Temptation 4. Responsibility for the Sins of Others and Sinful Cooperation

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COURSE OUTLINE Sin and Conversion B. Conversion: On Going of Process for Transformation 1. Man’s need for Conversion 2. Nature of Conversion 3. The Role of the Church in Conversion/Reconciliation

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COURSE OUTLINE Sin and Conversion D. Discipleship: The Way Towards Christian Morality 1. Living Authentic Human Life: Christ as a Model 2. Responding to Christ’s Commandment of Love (Agape) 3. Living the Life in the Spirit

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COURSE OUTLINE Sin and Conversion E. Christ’s Invitation to Perfection 1. Defective Ideals 2. The Call to Perfection in Holy Scripture 3. Essence of Universality of the Call to Perfection 4. Pathway’s to Holiness

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COURSE OUTLINE V. Grace & Virtues: WHAT AM I CALLED FOR? C. Virtues Habits for Effective Christian Living 1. Nature of Virtues 2. Systems of Virtues 3. Fundamental Requirements for Virtue 4. Grace and the Theological & Cardinal/Moral Virtues 5. Saints: Men and Women of Virtues

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UNIT III: THE CHRISTIAN RESPONSE TO SPECIAL MORAL ISSUES VI. Current Moral issues in the light of the Decalogue A. Issues on Life and the Body (4 th 5 th Commandment) B . Issues on Sexuality (6 th and 9 th Commandment) C. Issues on Truthfulness (8 th Commandment)

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VII. Special Moral Issues: WHAT OUGHT TO BE MY RESPONSE? (6 th to 10 th Commandments) A. Issues on Human Life Artificial Contraception (Pills, Condoms…) Abortion Suicide Stewardship versus Exploitation

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VII. Special Moral Issues: WHAT OUGHT TO BE MY RESPONSE? (6 th to 10 th Commandments) B. Issues on Sexuality Pornography, Subliminal Advertising Premarital Sex Masturbation Homosexuality & Homosexual Relationships C. Issues on Justice & Truth Kinds of Lie Broad Mental Reservation

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WHO AM I ? WHERE AM I ?

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WHERE AM I ? WHERE AM I GOING ?

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WHERE AM I GOING ? WHAT AM I CALLED FOR ?

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WHAT AM I CALLED FOR ? HOW DOI RESPOND TO SPECIAL MORAL ISSUES?

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WHO AM I ? WHERE AM I ? WHERE AM I GOING ? WHAT AM I CALLED FOR ? HOW DOI RESPOND TO SPECIAL MORAL ISSUES?

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INTRODUCTION: PHILOSOPHY/ THEOLOGY/ MORALITY

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INTRODUCTION: PHILOSOPHY A: Etymologically: It comes from two Greed words philos (“love”), and sophia (“wisdom”). Hence, philosophy is defined as “love of wisdom”. Q: What is Philosophy? Classical Definition: It is the science which studies the final or ultimate causes of all things in the light of human reason.

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INTRODUCTION: THEOLOGY Etymology: (THEOS: GOD / LOGOS:STUDY/SCIENCE) HENCE, THEOLOGY IS THE SCIENCE OR STUDY OF GOD Q: What is Theology?

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THEOLOGY AS SCIENCE In the sense that theology as a study of God is also a systematic body of knowledge However , unlike other human sciences, theology solely relies on divine revelation

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DIVINE REVELATION Through revelation, God makes himself known… …as well as his plan of salvation

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God’s revelation comes to us even through the most ordinary circumstance of our life.

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Divine revelation can only be accepted by FAITH Revelation is God’s initiative. Through revelation God establishes a relationship with humanity

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FAITH enables us to see God’s intervention even in human history

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Through theology: we learn of a God who is active in human affairs… Not a God who watches from a distance

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Hence, THEOLOGY is: The study of God and his relationship with man and the world Studied through the use of reason illumined by faith

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INTRODUCTION: MORALITY/ETHICS Where am I going ?

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INTRODUCTION: MORALITY/ETHICS Q: What is Ethics? A: Etymologically: It comes from two Greek word ethos , meaning a characteristic way of doing things , or a body of customs . Hence, it is a study of human customs or ways of doing things.

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INTRODUCTION: MORALITY/ETHICS Q: What is Ethics? Classical Definition: It is the science of the morality of human acts . It is a science because it is a systematic body of knowledge meant to guide men in their pursuit of the good and happy life . Ethics is therefore a practical science ; it is not a speculative science that merely theorizes. Ethics is meant to be applied, i.e., it teaches how men ought to live.

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INTRODUCTION: MORALITY/ETHICS Note : Ethics can be divided into two: A. General Ethics – concerns the individual and what he ought to do to live happy and fruitful life in this world. B. Special Ethics – concerns the individual as a member of society . All problems concerning society and the social order are taken up.

THE IMPERATIVES OF ETHICS: 

THE IMPERATIVES OF ETHICS Ethics presupposes some imperatives (required) or sine qua non , “those with which” Ethics would not be possible. These imperatives are: 1. the existence of God or a Supreme Being 2. the existence of human freedom; 3. the existence of an afterlife, i.e., life beyond the grave, or the immortality of the soul

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INTRODUCTION: MORALITY/ETHICS Q: What is Morality ? A: Mortality is the quality of goodness or badness of human acts. It is also the rightness or wrongness of human acts as they conform or do not conform to standards. B: Human acts are those that are done with full knowledge and full willingness or deliberation . Acts that are done without full knowledge or full willingness or deliberation or both are termed acts of man . Human acts must conform to a standard to determine whether they are good or bad, right or wrong, moral or immoral.

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MORAL THEOLOGY Moral Theology seeks to relate the Christian to the complex realities of living in the world . Interested on the implications of the Christian faith. Ethics of Being B. Ethics of Doing Ethics of Being Ethics of Doing Interiority of the person. Interiority of the person get expressed in behavior Actions are always expression of a person . Right actions come from a good person It pays attention to what is happening to the person performing actions rather than on the actions the person performs. Attends not only to the duties and obligations of the person acting but also to the circumstances which make up the moral situation It asks: What sort of person should I become because I believe in Christ? It asks: What sort of action should I perform because I believe in Christ? Character Action

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MORAL THEOLOGY “Special attention needs to be given to the development of moral theology. Its scientific exposition should be thoroughly nourished by the scriptural teaching . It should show the nobility of the Christian vocation of the faithful and their obligation to bring forth fruit in Charity for the life of the world.” ( Optatem Totusis , 16) Five Guidelines to the Development of Moral Theology Vocation of the Christian - Call to Holiness - Invitation from Christ to a personal response of love. Love God through one’s neighbor - The life of Christian must live daily in word and deed. - As a service for others not purely between God and individual. More Biblical - More thoroughly nourished by scriptural teaching. - Imbued with a deeper sense of the Word of God as revealed in scripture and of the history of Man’s salvation revealed in the bible. More Scientific - constant dialogue with other field of study. On Going Task - Socially oriented and must come into grips with contemporary problems.

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MORAL THEOLOGY Scriptural Basis “Someone came to Him…” For the young man, the question is not so much about rules to be followed, but about the full meaning of life . This is in fact the aspiration at the heart of every human decision and action, the quiet searching and interior prompting which sets freedom in motion. This question is ultimately an appeal to the absolute Good which attracts and beckons us; it is the echo of a call from God who is the origin and goal of man’s life. In order to make this “encounter” with Christ possible, God willed His church.

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“Teacher, what good must I do to have eternal life?” It is essential and unavoidable question for the life of every man, for it is the moral good which must be done, and about eternal life. People today need to turn to Christ once again in order to receive from Him the answer to their questions about what is good and what is evil. “There is only one who is good.” The answer to the question, What good must I do to have eternal life?, can only be found by turning one’s mind and heart to the “ ONE ” who is good; only God can answer the question about what is good, ultimately means to turn towards God.

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“If you wish to enter into life, keep the commandments” God has already given an answer to this question. He did so by creating man and ordering him with wisdom and love to his final end , through the law which is inscribed in his heart. The natural law is no other than the light of understanding infused in us by God, whereby we understand what must be done and what must be avoided. God gave this light and this law to man at creation. The Ten Commandments are part of God’s revelation. At the same time, they teach us man’s true humanity. They shed light on the essential duties, and so indirectly on the fundamental rights, inherent in the nature of the human person. Without love of neighbor made concrete in keeping the commandments, genuine love for God is not possible. Jesus brings God’s commandments to fulfillment, particularly the commandment of love of neighbor, by interiorizing their demands and by bringing out their fullest meaning.

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INTRODUCTION: MORALITY/ETHICS Q : What is Ethics?

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MORAL SITUATION: AN OVERVIEW CONTEMPORARY MORAL TRENDS An overview of the moral situation presents to us the contemporary moral trends The present generation is characterized by the extraordinary increase and gravity of threats to life

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THE THREATS TO LIFE DIRECTLY AFFLICT THE WEAK AND THE DEFENSELESS

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THREATS TO LIFE: WHATEVER IS OPPOSED TO LIFE Murder, genocide, abortion, euthanasia, suicide

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B. WHATEVER VIOLATES THE INTEGRITY OF THE HUMAN PERSON mutilation, torments inflicted on body and mind

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C. WHATEVER INSULTS HUMAN DIGNITY Subhuman living conditions slavery imprisonment human trafficking disgraceful working conditions

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ALL THESE ARE: Poisons to human society Against the order of reason

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THEY ARE: Expanding with new prospects Opened up by scientific technological progress

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IRONY Progress in science and technology Regress in moral life

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GRAVE CONCERN: Broad sectors of public opinion JUSTIFY certain crimes against life HOW? By invoking the rights of individual freedom and By obtaining exemption from punishment even authorization by the state, so that these crimes can be done with total freedom

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IT IS GRAVE AND DISTURBING THAT CONSCIENCE IS DARKENED BY WIDESPREAD CONDITIONING AS A RESULT, IT HAS BECOME DIFFICULT TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN GOOD AND EVIL SYMPTOMATIC OF MORAL DECLINE

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C. ROOTS AND SOURCES OF CONTEMPORARY MORAL TRENDS 1. Profound Crisis of Culture CULTURE pattern of human knowledge, customary belief, and behavior of a racial, religious, or social group the characteristic features of everyday existence shared by people in a place or time the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices

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CAUSE: Skepticism in relation to the foundations of knowledge and ethics EFFECTS: difficulty in grasping clearly: - The meaning of human existence - The meaning of man’s rights and duties

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MAN FINDS HIMSELF LOST

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2. Existential and Interpersonal difficulties EXISTENTIAL grounded in existence or the experience of existence Aggravated by the complexity of society where people no longer want to take responsibility for their neighbors

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3. Situations of Acute Poverty, Anxiety or Frustration

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CONCLUSION: THE CONTEMPORARY MORAL TRENDS MAKE THE CHOICE TO DEFEND AND PROMOTE LIFE DEMANDING AS SOMETIMES TO REACH THE POINT OF HEROISM