God Particle

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For better understanding of Higgs boson

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GOD PARTICLE; If Universe is the Answer,What is the Question:

Presented by Ria Rushin Joseph MSc Physics GOD PARTICLE; If Universe is the Answer,What is the Question

Contents::

C ontents: Standard Model Fundemental forces of nature Unification of forces of nature Spontaneous symmetry breaking Higgs mechanism The Higgs Boson Brief outline of LHC

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Standard Model:

Standard Model

Major defects of the model:

does not incorporate the full theory of gravitation as described by general relativity. does not include dark matter particle. does not account correctly for the neutrino oscillations.(also about their non zero masses) does not predict any masses of the particle , it simply predicts the existance of particles Major defects of the model

FUNDEMENTAL FORCES OF NATURE:

FUNDEMENTAL FORCES OF NATURE

Range & Strength :

Range & Strength

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Unification of Forces of Nature

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Superunified theories- theory describing the unification of all the four forces into a single force. Grandunified thoeries-weak,strong & electromagnetic forces. Standard Electroweak theory-weak & electromagnetic forces.

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Loss of Unity in the Forces of Nature Characterization Forces Unified Time Since Beginning Temperature (GeV) * All 4 forces unified Gravity, Strong, Electromagnetic, Weak ~0 ~infinite Gravity separates (Planck Scale) Strong, Electromagnetic, Weak 10 -43 s 10 19 Strong force separates (GUTs Scale) Electromagnetic, Weak 10 -35 s 10 14 Split of weak and electromagnetic forces None 10 -11 s 100 Present Universe None 10 10 y 10 -12

Spontaneous symmetry breaking:

Spontaneous symmetry breaking Yoichiro Nambu The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008 for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics

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It is a spontaneous process by which a system in a symmetrical state ends up in an asymmetrical state Agent : Higgs Field Occurs at low temperature Necessary to interpret the mass of elementary particles.

Higgs Mechanism:

Kind of mass generation mechanism A process that give mass to elementary particles Particles gain mass by interacting Higgs field that permeates all over the space. The Higgs mechanism endows gauge boson in a gauge theory with mass through absorption of Nambu–Goldstone bosons arising in spontaneous symmetry breaking Higgs Mechanism

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In the Standard Model, the phrase "Higgs mechanism" refers specifically to the generation of masses for the W±, and Z weak gauge bosons through electroweak symmetry breaking

TWO INTERPRETATIONS FOR HIGGS MECHANISM:

TWO INTERPRETATIONS FOR HIGGS MECHANISM

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The Waldegrave Higgs challenge In 1993, the then UK Science Minister, William Waldegrave, issued a challenge to physicists to answer the questions: 'What is the Higgs boson, and why do we want to find it?’ on one side of a sheet of paper. David Miller of UCL won a bottle of champagne for the following :

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Imagine a room full of political activists

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The Prime Minister walks in

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He is surrounded by a cluster of people Analogous to generation of Mass

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Imagine the same room again

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A interesting rumour is introduced

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Soon we have a cluster of people discussing it Analogous to Higgs boson

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“Mexican hat or sombrero interpretation”

Hence,:

Hence,

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Man can’t slide initially to down because of immense temperature. As temperature decreases he slides down to the rim of the sombrero.

Hence,:

Hence,

Completion of picture:

Completion of picture A Weak charge of Higgs field – impart mass to matter particles having a charge.(e g: electron, Gauge bosons etc) Particles missing a weak charge- no mass(e g: photon)

Higgs Boson:

Higgs Boson

Higgs Boson:

Higgs Boson

Higgs Boson:

Higgs Boson

Major Scientists ::

Major Scientists :

Brief description on Large Hadron Collider(LHC):

Brief description on Large Hadron Collider(LHC)

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The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is located in a circular tunnel 27 km (17 miles) in circumference. The tunnel is buried around 100 m (about the size of a football field) underground. It straddles the Swiss and French borders on the outskirts of Geneva ..

Luminosity:

Determines the probability of collision Luminosity What is luminosity? “Luminosity is the number of particles per unit area per unit time times the opacity of the target”

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L = f n N 1 N 2 where A f is the revolution frequency (c/27 km) n is the number of bunches in one beam in the storage ring. (2808 bunches) Ni is the number of particles in each bunch (billions) A is the cross section of the beam (40  m)

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6 areas around circumference that will collect and analyze data ATLAS CMS ALICE LHCb TOTEM (minor study) LHCf (minor study )

References::

Leon Lederman- The God Particle : If Universe is the Answer, What is the question (2006) Search for the Higgs Boson –John V .Lee(2006) Wikipedia and other related sites References:

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Thank you 