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Traffic Engineering With MPLS : 

1 Traffic Engineering With MPLS By Behzad Akbari Fall 2008 These slides are based in parts on the slides of Shivkumar (RPI)

Traffic Engineering : 

2 Traffic Engineering TE: “…that aspect of Internet network engineering dealing with the issue of performance evaluation and performance optimization of operational IP networks …’’ Two abstract sub-problems: 1. Define a traffic aggregate (eg: OC- or T-carrier hierarchy, or ATM PVCs) 2. Map the traffic aggregate to an explicitly setup path Cannot do this in OSPF or BGP-4 today! OSPF and BGP-4 offer only a SINGLE path!

Why not TE with OSPF/BGP? : 

3 Why not TE with OSPF/BGP? Internet connectionless routing protocols designed to find only one route (path) The “connectionless” approach to TE is to “tweak” (I.e. change) link weights in IGP (OSPF, IS-IS) or EGP (BGP-4) protocols Assumptions: Quasi-static traffic, knowledge of demand matrix Limitations: Performance is fundamentally limited by the single shortest/policy path nature: All flows to a destination prefix mapped to the same path Desire to map traffic to different route (eg: for load-balancing reasons) => the single default route MUST be changed Changing parameters (eg: OSPF link weights) changes routes AND changes the traffic mapped to the routes Leads to extra control traffic (eg: OSPF floods or BGP-4 update message), convergence problems and routing instability! Summary: Traffic mapping coupled with route availability in OSPF/BGP! MPLS de-couples traffic trunking from path setup

Traffic Engineering w/ MPLS (Step I) : 

4 Traffic Engineering w/ MPLS (Step I) Engineer unidirectional paths through your network without using the IGP’s shortest path calculation San Francisco IGP shortest path traffic engineered path New York

Traffic Engineering w/ MPLS (Part II) : 

5 Traffic Engineering w/ MPLS (Part II) IP prefixes (or traffic aggregates) can now be bound to MPLE Label Switched Paths (LSPs) San Francisco New York 192.168.1/24 134.112/16

Traffic Aggregates: Forwarding Equivalence Classes : 

6 Traffic Aggregates: Forwarding Equivalence Classes FEC = “A subset of packets that are all treated the same way by a router” The concept of FECs provides for a great deal of flexibility and scalability In conventional routing, a packet is assigned to a FEC at each hop (i.e. L3 look-up), in MPLS it is only done once at the network ingress Packets are destined for different address prefixes, but can be mapped to common path LSR LSR LER LER LSP

Signaled TE Approach (eg: MPLS) : 

7 Signaled TE Approach (eg: MPLS) Features: In MPLS, the choice of a route (and its setup) is orthogonal to the problem of traffic mapping onto a route Signaling maps global IDs (addresses, path-specification) to local IDs (labels) FEC mechanism for defining traffic aggregates, label stacking for multi-level opaque tunneling Issues: Requires extensive upgrades in the network Hard to inter-network beyond area boundaries Very hard to go beyond AS boundaries (even in same organization) Impossible for inter-domain routing across multiple organizations => inter-domain TE has to be connectionless

Hop-by-Hop vs. Explicit Routing : 

8 Hop-by-Hop vs. Explicit Routing Hop-by-Hop Routing Explicit Routing Source routing of control traffic Builds a path from source to dest Requires manual provisioning, or automated creation mechanisms. LSPs can be ranked so some reroute very quickly and/or backup paths may be pre-provisioned for rapid restoration Operator has routing flexibility (policy-based, QoS-based, Adapts well to traffic engineering Distributes routing of control traffic Builds a set of trees either fragment by fragment like a random fill, or backwards, or forwards in organized manner. Reroute on failure impacted by convergence time of routing protocol Existing routing protocols are destination prefix based Difficult to perform traffic engineering, QoS-based routing Explicit routing shows great promise for traffic engineering

RSVP: “Resource reSerVation Protocol” : 

9 RSVP: “Resource reSerVation Protocol” A generic QoS signaling protocol An Internet control protocol Uses IP as its network layer Originally designed for host-to-host Uses the IGP to determine paths RSVP is not A data transport protocol A routing protocol RFC 2205

RSVP: Internet Signaling : 

10 RSVP: Internet Signaling Creates and maintains distributed reservation state De-coupled from routing & also to support IP multicast model: Multicast trees setup by routing protocols, not RSVP (unlike ATM or telephony signaling) Key features of RSVP: Receiver-initiated: scales for multicast Soft-state: reservation times out unless refreshed Latest paths discovered through “PATH” messages (forward direction) and used by RESV mesgs (reverse direction). Again dictated by needs of de-coupling from IP routing and to support IP multicast model

RSVP Path Signaling Example : 

11 RSVP Path Signaling Example Signaling protocol sets up path from San Francisco to New York, reserving bandwidth along the way Miami Seattle San Francisco (Ingress) New York (Egress)

RSVP Path Signaling Example : 

12 RSVP Path Signaling Example Once path is established, signaling protocol assigns label numbers in reverse order from New York to San Francisco San Francisco (Ingress) New York (Egress) 1965 1026 3 Miami Seattle

Call Admission : 

13 Call Admission Session must first declare its QOS requirement and characterize the traffic it will send through the network R-spec: defines the QOS being requested T-spec: defines the traffic characteristics A signaling protocol is needed to carry the R-spec and T-spec to the routers where reservation is required; RSVP is a leading candidate for such signaling protocol

Call Admission : 

14 Call Admission Call Admission: routers will admit calls based on their R-spec and T-spec and base on the current resource allocated at the routers to other calls.

Summary: Basic RSVP Path Signaling : 

15 Summary: Basic RSVP Path Signaling Reservation for simplex (unidirectional) flows Ingress router initiates connection “Soft” state Path and resources are maintained dynamically Can change during the life of the RSVP session Path message sent downstream Resv message sent upstream

MPLS Extensions to RSVP : 

16 MPLS Extensions to RSVP Path and Resv message objects Explicit Route Object (ERO) Label Request Object Label Object Record Route Object Session Attribute Object Tspec Object For more detail on contents of objects: daft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-lsp-tunnel-04.txt Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels

Explicit Route Object : 

17 Explicit Route Object Used to specify the explicit route RSVP Path messages take for setting up LSP Can specify loose or strict routes Loose routes rely on routing table to find destination Strict routes specify the directly-connected next router A route can have both loose and strict components

ERO: Strict Route : 

18 ERO: Strict Route A F E D C B Ingress LSR Egress LSR Next hop must be directly connected to previous hop Strict

ERO: Loose Route : 

19 ERO: Loose Route A F E D C B Egress LSR Consult the routing table at each hop to determine the best path: similar to IP routing option concept Ingress LSR Loose

ERO: Strict/Loose Path : 

20 ERO: Strict/Loose Path A F E D C B Egress LSR Strict and loose routes can be mixed Ingress LSR Strict Loose

Label Objects : 

21 Label Objects Label Request Object Added to PATH message at ingress LSR Requests that each LSR provide label to upstream LSR Label Object Carried in RESV messages along return path upstream Provides label to upstream LSR

Record Route Object— PATH Message : 

22 Record Route Object— PATH Message Added to PATH message by ingress LSR Adds outgoing IP address of each hop in the path In downstream direction Loop detection mechanism Sends “Routing problem, loop detected” PathErr message Drops PATH message

Session Attribute Object : 

23 Session Attribute Object Added to PATH message by ingress router Controls LSP Priority Preemption Fast-reroute Identifies session ASCII character string for LSP name

Adjacency Maintenance—Hello Message : 

24 Adjacency Maintenance—Hello Message New RSVP extension: leverage RSVP for hellos! Hello message Hello Request Hello Acknowledge Rapid node to node failure detection Asynchronous updates 3 second default update timer 12 second default dead timer

Path Maintenance — Refresh Messages : 

25 Path Maintenance — Refresh Messages Maintains reservation of each LSP Sent every 30 seconds by default Consists of PATH and RESV messages

RSVP Message Aggregation : 

26 RSVP Message Aggregation Bundles up to 30 RSVP messages within single PDU Controls Flooding of PathTear or PathErr messages Periodic refresh messages (PATH and RESV) Enhances protocol efficiency and reliability Disabled by default

Traffic Engineering:Constrained Routing : 

27 Traffic Engineering:Constrained Routing

Signaled vs Constrained LSPs : 

28 Signaled vs Constrained LSPs Common Features Signaled by RSVP MPLS labels automatically assigned Configured on ingress router only Signaled LSPs CSPF not used (I.e. normal IP routing is used) User configured ERO handed to RSVP for signaling RSVP consults routing table to make next hop decision Constrained LSPs CSPF used Full path computed by CSPF at ingress router Complete ERO handed to RSVP for signaling

Constrained Shortest Path First Algorithm : 

29 Constrained Shortest Path First Algorithm Modified “shortest path first” algorithm Finds shortest path based on IGP metric while satisfying additional QoS constraints Integrates TED (Traffic Engineering Database) IGP topology information Available bandwidth Link color Modified by administrative constraints Maximum hop count Bandwidth Strict or loose routing Administrative groups

Computing the ERO : 

30 Computing the ERO Ingress LSR passes user defined restrictions to CSPF Strict and loose hops Bandwidth constraints Admin Groups CSPF algorithm Factors in user defined restrictions Runs computation against the TED Determines the shortest path CSPF hands full ERO to RSVP for signaling

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