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Provides nutrient and water to supplyFACTORS EFFECTING SOIL FORMATION: FACTORS EFFECTING SOIL FORMATION CLIMATE VEGETATION AGE OF ROCK RELIEF PARENTAL ROCKTYPES OF SOIL: TYPES OF SOIL Eight major types of soil according to India council of Agricultural Research(ICAR) Alluvial soil Black soil Red soil Laterite soil Desert soil Mountain soil Saline and Alkaline soil Peaty and Marshy soilsALLUVIAL SOIL: ALLUVIAL SOIL It is formed by deposition of alluvium by rivers. It occupies 15 lakh sq. km in India Contribute greatly in agricultural development.ALLUVIAL SOIL: ALLUVIAL SOIL ALLUVIAL SOIL IN INDIA It is formed by deposition of alluvium by rivers. It occupies 15 lakh sq. km in India Contribute greatly in agricultural development TWO TYPES KHADAR – Newer alluvium. Sandy ,pale , brown composition. Found in lower areas. Flooded every year BHANGAR- Olde r alluvium. Clayey and dark colour. Coarse in nature. Contains kankar (lime nodules) , pebbles and gravels. Represents riverine alluvium of H imalayan rivers.CHARACTERISTIS-Transported soils 1>Coarser in upper section and finest in Delta. 2>Light to dark in colour. 3>Rich in potash in humus. 4>Poor in phosphorus and in Nitrogen. 5>High fertile good for all crops. CROPS-Rice ,sugar cane , jute, cotton , wheat. AREAS- Punjab , Haryana , U.P. ,Bihar , W.B. , Assam , Parts of Orissa , Delta regions of S . India. : CHARACTERISTIS- Transported soils 1>Coarser in upper section and finest in Delta. 2>Light to dark in colour. 3>Rich in potash in humus. 4>Poor in phosphorus and in Nitrogen. 5>High fertile good for all crops . CROPS- Rice ,sugar cane , jute, cotton , wheat. AREAS- Punjab , Haryana , U.P. ,Bihar , W.B . , Assam , Parts of Orissa , Delta regions of S . India.BLACK SOIL: BLACK SOIL Also known as Regur or black Cotton soil cotton. Dark gray to black in colour . High clay content. Highly moist retentive. Develops crack in summer. Covers 5.4 lakh sq. km. Highly suitable for cotton. Rich in iron , lime, calcium , Magnesium ,carbonates , and alumina .BLACK SOIL: BLACK SOIL Poor in phosphorus ,nitrogen and in organic matter. AREAS- Deccan trap which includes Maharashtra , Western Madhya Pradesh , Parts of Andhra Pradesh , Karnataka , Parts of Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. CROPS- Cotton , Sugarcane , Ground nut , millets ,Rice , Wheat ,Oil seedsRED SOIL: RED SOIL Formed due to weathering of old crystalline rocks. More sandy and less clayey. Rich in iron , small amounts of humus. Poor in phosphorus , nitrogen and lime. Slightly acidic and don’t retain moisture. 3.5 lakhs sq. km area. Porous and friable.RED SOIL: RED SOIL AREA: Tamil Nadu ,Southern Karnataka ,Parts of Madhya Pradesh , Maharashtra ,West Bengal , Eastern Rajasthan ,North Eastern States . CROPS- Ragi , Groundnut , Millet ,Tobacco , Potato , Rice , Wheat , Sugarcane .LATERITE SOIL: LATERITE SOIL Latin word meaning brick. Former under high temperature and rainfall with wet and dry spell. Silica is leached due to high rainfall. Remnants of iron and aluminum oxides left behind is known as laterite. Brown to yellowish colour . Becomes hard when exposed to atmosphere . Used as building material.LATERITE SOIL: LATERITE SOIL Rich in iron. Poor in lime , Potash and magnesium . Occupies 2.4 lakh sq. km . AREAS-Parts of Assam ,Karnataka , Tamil Nadu , Andhra Pradesh ,Madhya Pradesh ,Kerala . CROPS- Tea , Coffee , Cashew , Rubber and Coconut .DESERT SOIL: DESERT SOIL Contains soluble salts . Originated by Mechanical disintegration and wind deposit . Porous and coarse. 90% sand and 5% clay. Rich in Nitrates and Phosphates. Poor in Nitrogen and Humus. Friable sandy and Moist content . 1.4 lakh sq. km .DESERT SOIL: DESERT SOIL AREAS- Arid and semi regions of Rajasthan and southern Haryana , Punjab ,and Northern Gujarat. CROPS- Drought resistant crops like millets and Barley.MOUNTAIN SOIL: MOUNTAIN SOIL Found in hill slopes. Formed by deposition of organic matter from forest. Rich in humus . Poor in Potash and lime . AREAS-Assam , Sikkim , Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh. CROPS- Tea , Coffee , Spices ,and Tropical fruits .SALINE AND ALKALINE: SALINE AND ALKALINE Contains salt like Sodium , magnesium ,Calcium . Infertile ,unfit for cultivativation . Sandy to loamy in texture . AREAS –Parts of Gujarat ,Rajasthan , Punjab , , Haryana ,U.P. , Maharashtra .PEATY AND MARSHY SOIL: PEATY AND MARSHY SOIL Occur in humid region. Formed by accumulation by organic matter. Black In colour. Highly acidic and heavy. AREAS Kottayam and Alleppey an Kerala. Orissa , Sundarbans of W.B.SOIL EROSION: SOIL EROSION Removal of top soil by different agents , CAUSES DEFORESTATION OVERGRAZING FAULTY METHOD EROSION BY RIVERS REMOVAL OF TOP SOIL(for bricks , tiles ,pots etc) . SHIFTING CULTIVATIONSOIL EROSION: SOIL EROSION EFFECTS- Loss of cultivable land. Reduction in soil fertility. Cause of silting & may change river course. Results in lots of run of. Result in percolation of land water.SOIL CONSERVATION: SOIL CONSERVATION Protection of soil from Erosion and deterioration . Measures for soil conservation : Contour farming. Mulching (spreading of grass , leaves on the ground). A forestation and reforestation. Controlled grazing. Construction of dams and barrages. Crop rotation and sub soiling. Terrace farming. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.