Gender Budgeting in State Budgets Best Practices by Prof. Vibhuti Pate

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Transparency/accountability for revenue generation & public expenditure Reprioritisation in public spending Lift the veil of statistical invisibility of the unpaid ‘care economy’ Equality &efficiency dimension Transform macro policy The means adopted by different states to finance budgets-burden of indirect taxes mostly bourn by the common citizens. Case studies of the state budget of Maharashtra (Pandey, Kanchi, Akolkar, 2004 and Parikh, Acharya, Krishnaraj, 2004) Midday Meal Scheme Tamilnadu (Swaminathan, Jeyaranjan, Sreenivasan & Jayashree, 2004) Bottom-up budget by involving women elected representatives of the PRIs in Karnataka (Bhat, Kolhar, Chellappa and Anand, 2004) Comparative analysis of development and social sector expenditures of 13 Indian states with that of West Bengal (Banerjee and Roy, 2004)

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Gender Budgeting in State Budgets :

Gender Budgeting in State Budgets A presentation By Dr. Vibhuti Patel Director, PGSR Professor and Head P.G. Department of Economics, S.N. D. T. Women’s University, Mumbai E mail: Vibhuti.np@ gmail.com Mobile- 9321040048 Phone-91-022-27770227 1

Gender Commitments translated into Budgetary Commitments:

Gender Commitments translated into Budgetary Commitments Transparency/accountability for revenue generation & public expenditure Reprioritisation in public spending Lift the veil of statistical invisibility of the unpaid ‘care economy’ Equality &efficiency dimension Transform macro policy 2

Budgetary Allocation for 2003-4:

Budgetary Allocation for 2003-4 Items Allocation 2003-4, Rs. Cuts compared to 2002-3 Rs. Working Women’s Hostel 9.00 cr 4.48 cr Labour social securities 61.24 cr 30.00 cr Rashtriya Mahila Kosh 1.00 cr 0.00 Handloom Sector Ignored RCH (Rs.571.53 cr in 2002-03 448.57 cr 122.96 cr Family Welfare Services 142.00 cr 254.50 cr 3

Budget Allocations for 2005-6, Expenditure Budget, Vol II Website:http://indiabudget.nic.in:

Budget Allocations for 2005-6, Expenditure Budget, Vol II Website:http://indiabudget.nic.in Demand No. Programmes Budget Estimates 49 Fam. Wel. RCH Rs.1380.68 Cr. 56 Pri. Edu Mahila Samakhya Rs. 30.00 Cr. 58 Se. Edu Access & Equity Rs. 9.00 Cr. 59 DWCD ICDS Rs. 3315 Cr. 59 DWCD Short Stay Homes Rs. 15.00 Cr. 61 Lab& Emp Child & Women Workers Rs. 125.05 Cr. 65 Energy Improved Chullahs Rs. 00.50 Cr. 79 RDeve Employment Rs.1424.90 Cr. 88 SJ&Em Girls Hostel Rs . 0.01 Cr. 4

Budget Allocations for 2006-7, Expenditure Budget Total Allocation for DWCD- Rs. 4852.94 crores :

Budget Allocations for 2006-7, Expenditure Budget Total Allocation for DWCD- Rs. 4852.94 crores Demand No. Programmes Budget Estimates 46. Fam. Wel. RCH Rs. 1529.95Cr. 57.Child Wel Creche Rs. 11.8 Cr. 57 Women Wel CSWB Rs. 35.45 Cr. 57 DWCD ICDS (World Bank supported) Rs. 3954.00 Cr. 57 DWCD Short Stay Homes Rs. 15.90 Cr. 57 DWCD RMK Rs. 10.00 Cr. 57 DWCD Swadhar Rs. 7.00 Cr. 57 DWCD Rescue of Victims of Trafficking Rs. 0.45 Cr. 57 DWCD Working women’s Hostel Rs . 4.48 Cr. 5

Gender Budgeting Analysis of Different States in India::

Gender Budgeting Analysis of Different States in India: the means adopted by different states to finance budgets-burden of indirect taxes mostly bourn by the common citizens. Case studies of the state budget of Maharashtra (Pandey, Kanchi, Akolkar, 2004 and Parikh, Acharya, Krishnaraj, 2004) Midday Meal Scheme Tamilnadu (Swaminathan, Jeyaranjan, Sreenivasan & Jayashree, 2004) Bottom-up budget by involving women elected representatives of the PRIs in Karnataka (Bhat, Kolhar, Chellappa and Anand, 2004) and comparative analysis of development and social sector expenditures of 13 Indian states with that of West Bengal (Banerjee and Roy, 2004) 6

Gender differential impact of:

Gender differential impact of protective and welfare services (pension for widow and destitute women, budget for shelter homes and rehabilitation center for women victims of violence), social services (budgetary provision for education, health, crèche, working women’s hostels, fuel, fodder, water, housing, sanitation, nutrition-mid day meal) regulatory services (state commissions for women and women’s cell in the police stations, government departments) awareness generation programmes. 7

State Government Initiatives:

State Government Initiatives Karnataka-Bottom Up budgets Rajasthan-Right to Information- monitoring of financial allocation by NGOs West Bengal-Gender Economists consulted by the Planning Department Kerala- Forty % of total allocation for PRI & 10 % of PRI budget to women Assam- Capacity building Orissa- women’s component in social Sector budget Tamilnadu-Mid Day Meal Scheme, Cradle baby scheme Goa-Tourism driven budget Maharashtra- Drastic reduction in social sector budget 8

Unutilised Funds:

Unutilised Funds Faulty design Bureaucratic hassles Rigidity of schemes/programmes Need for State Fund for Women with flexibility to address region specific needs/demands of women Unattended Issues- financial allocation for Swadhar scheme for destitute women (62 % non-utilisation) Implementation of PCPNDT Act, Workers in SEZ, EPZ, FTZ, Farmers suicide & starvation deaths, social security for old women, displaced & relocated population, Female headed households Lack of political will 9

Demands of Women’s Groups:

Demands of Women’s Groups Separate listing of women specific items in the budget Gender disaggregated data by the State governments Women’s Component with SCP and TSP Reduction of property taxes and stamp duties for single women No diversion of women’s component funds (30% of the total) in different ministries and departments. E.g. in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, swadhar & all anti-poverty programmes & schemes Transparency about allocation and complete utilisation of funding- ensure no lapsed funds Right to information Inclusion of gender economists in pre-budget workshops that should be held around October so that their suggestions can be included. Appoint a gender specialist in the finance ministry Develop a notion of women friendly cities thro’ budgetary allocations 10

4 categories of programmes/ schemes benefiting women :

4 categories of programmes / schemes benefiting women Women specific schemes where 100 % of the allocation is required to be spent on women. Pro-women schemes where at least 30% of allocation and benefits flow to women. Gender neutral schemes meant for the benefit of community as a whole where both men and women avail these benefits. The residual state specific programmes having profound effect on women’s position/ condition. 11

Panchayat Budgets:

Panchayat Budgets To engender budgets at the Panchayat level, we need to analyse budgets scheme-wise, sector wise, category-wise and year wise with their budget estimates, revised estimates and the actual expenditure. It is also important to make thorough study of Economic Survey published by the Government of India and State Human Development Reports, State Policies for Women and allocation of resources in the State plans published by the state governments that guide programmes and budgetary allocations 12

Food Subsidy(2003-4 and 2004-5):

Food Subsidy(2003-4 and 2004-5) Union budget (2003-4) made provision of Rs. 25000 The interim budget for 2004-5 estimated that food subsidy would stand at Rs. 27800 crore. More than enough buffer stock- roting in the poorly equipped and managed ware-houses But main problem- Distribution of food-grains Dismantling of Public Distribution System Food-grains exported at lower price than PDS- poor are forced to starve or buy from the open market 13

Initiative of the Union RD Ministry:

Initiative of the Union RD Ministry To check corruption and bring in transparency in the implementation of rural development projects sponsored by the union government, the Union Rural Development ministry had asked all District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs) to keep their funds only in the nationalised banks. It has also been made compulsory for the district rural bodies to record complete details of expenditure incurred under different heads. People’s participation in monitoring the progress of implementation and the mechanism of social audit will also be introduced as part of the new strategy to cleanse the working of the DRDAs. 14

Sampoorna Grameen Yojana Funds:

Sampoorna Grameen Yojana Funds The Supreme Court warns against diversion of Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar funds meant for upliftment for poor to other purposes. The SC has directed the union government not to release any fund under this head to a state until a utilisation certificate for previous allocation furnished by it. This directive came in response to a petition, filed by PUCL, highlighting starvation deaths in some parts of Orissa. 15

NIRD Study on PRI Finances:

NIRD Study on PRI Finances A recent survey of panchayats working in 19 states, conducted by the National Institute of Rural Development, Hyderabad suggested that panchayats remain toothless because functional and financial autonomy has not been granted to the PRIs. The study by the Institute of Social Sciences shows that the extent of fiscal decentralisation through the empowerment of PRIs has been very little. 16

Practical & Strategic Gender Needs:

Practical & Strategic Gender Needs Elected women in PRI, legislative bodies and parliament have played a positive role in addressing, or attempting to address, a range of practical gender needs (inadequacies in living conditions such as provision of fuel, water, healthcare and employment). their impact on strategic gender needs( affirmative action by the state, pro-active role of the employers to enhance women’s position in the economy and social movements) is not remarkable. 17

Need for Composite Programmes for women/ girls:

Need for Composite Programmes for women/ girls There is a need for provisions in the composite programmes under education, health and rural development sectors to target them specifically at girls/women as the principal beneficiaries and disaggregated within the total allocation. Need to place restrictions on their re-appropriation for other purposes. 18

Need for a Proactive Role of State Commissions for Women on Budget:

Need for a Proactive Role of State Commissions for Women on Budget Budgets garner resources through the taxation policies and allocate resources to different sections of the economy. The Budget is an important tool in the hands of state for affirmative action for improvement of gender relations through reduction of gender gap in the development process. It can help to reduce economic inequalities, between men and women as well as between the rich and the poor. Engendering of Bottom-up budget, Green Budget, Gender Budget, SCP, TSP 19

Thank you:

Thank you 20 Let us engender state budgets so that women’s lives are not endangered.

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