Vibhuti Patel Gender Dimensions of NEP &, LPG 10-7-2012

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In response to a mounting burden of debt leading to a balance of payment crisis, the Government of India (GOI) adopted a structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1991. It included reductions in public investment, devaluation, cutting food and fertilizers subsidies, the reduction of budgetary provision for developmental planning, capital intensive and 'high-tech' productive activities, economies in government expenditure, an increase in the bank rate, insurance charges and rail tariffs. Simply put, the policy aimed at capital, energy and import-intensive growth with the help of 4 "Ds" - devaluation, deregulation, deflation and denationalisation.

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Gender Dimensions of New Economic Policy (NEP) & Liberalisation, Privatisation, Globalisation (LPG):

Gender Dimensions of New Economic Policy (NEP) & Liberalisation, Privatisation, Globalisation (LPG) Dr Vibhuti Patel, Professor & HOD, University Department of Economics, SNDT Women’s university, Churchgate, Mumbai-400020 Phone-26770227, Mobile- 9321040048 E mail- vibhuti.np@gmail.com 1

Structural Adjustment Programme:

Structural Adjustment Programme In response to a mounting burden of debt leading to a balance of payment crisis, the Government of India (GOI) adopted a structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1991. It included reductions in public investment, devaluation, cutting food and fertilizers subsidies, the reduction of budgetary provision for developmental planning, capital intensive and 'high-tech' productive activities, economies in government expenditure, an increase in the bank rate, insurance charges and rail tariffs. Simply put, the policy aimed at capital, energy and import-intensive growth with the help of 4 "Ds" - devaluation, deregulation, deflation and denationalisation. 2

New international division of labour:

New international division of labour between the advanced capitalist economies and the post-colonial economies of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the late 1970s, national and multinational corporations in the USA and Europe realized that the best way to reduce the wage-bill and to enhance profit rates, was to move industrial plants to poorer countries like India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, etc. The cheap labour of 'docile', 'nimble fingered' and 'flexible' Asian women was found to be most attractive step to enhance profit margins. This policy was given the appealing title of 'Integration of Women in Development. 3

Inequality:

Inequality SAP has accentuated inequality and poverty and has had massive influence on the urban, rural and dalit /tribal poor women as paid, underpaid and unpaid workers of the economy. As homemakers the poor women have shouldered disproportionate (triple) burden of SAP due to commercialisation of day-to-day survival needs such as drinking water, degradation of environment and health services and cash controlled and privatised education by corporate driven SAP. 4

Market Fundamentalism:

Market Fundamentalism Expensive transport, erosion of public distribution system that provided grains, fuel, cloth material, soap, etc., have reduced chances of schooling, nutritious diet and healthy growth of poor women’s children. Laissez-faire in the labour market has threatened the employment opportunities of the adult and married women. During the last one decade, there has been drastic increase in the girl child labour. 5

Under-development in a historical context:

Under-development in a historical context Feminization of poverty describes a phenomenon in which women represent disproportionate percentages of the world’s poor. "the burden of poverty borne by women, especially in developing countries“ This concept is not only a consequence of lack of income, but is also the result of the deprivation of capabilities and gender biases present in both societies and governments. poverty of choices and opportunities, such as the ability to lead a long, healthy, and creative life, and enjoy basic rights like freedom, respect, and dignity. 6

Contribution of women to the family in poor household:

Contribution of women to the family in poor household Several factors affect the feminization of poverty, and these factors place women at high risk of poverty. Though low income is the major cause, there are many interrelated facets of this problem. Lone mothers are usually at the highest risk for extreme poverty because their income is insufficient to rear children. It then lowers their children’s possibilities for good education and nourishment. 7

Women agricultural workers:

Women agricultural workers Article 39 of the Indian Constitution directs the state to ensure that “citizens, men and women equally, have the right to adequate means of livelihood”; that “there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women”; and that “the health and strength of workers, men and women, [...] are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength”. On the other hand, article 16 of the Constitution, stating the principle of equality in employment, applies to public employment only. Unequal wages-ERA-1976 Maternity benefits Sexual harassment Pregnant workers have the right not to perform arduous work, or work which involves long hours of standing or which is likely to interfere with the pregnancy, the normal development of the foetus, adversely affect health or cause a miscarriage (Maternity Benefit Act, sec. 4(3)). No deductions from wages can be made because of the changed nature of the work performed (sec. 13 of the same Act). Nursing women have a right to two nursing breaks per day until the child attains the age of fifteen months, without deductions from the wage (secs. 11 and 13). Under the Plantations Labour Act of 1951, employers with more than 50 women workers (or with women workers having a number of children under six years old of 20 or more) must provide crèche facilities (sec. 12). 8

Women in the urban organised sector:

Women in the urban organised sector As on the 31st March, 2005 a total number of 50.16 Lacs women employees were engaged in the organized sector, out of which 29.21 lacs (58per cent) in the public sector and 20.95 lacs (42per cent) in the Private Sector. Employment of women in public sector increased by 1.1 percent and by 2.5 percent in the private sector during 2004-2005. The zone wise analysis showed an increase of 8 percent in North-Eastern Zone, followed by Western Zone (5.3per cent), Eastern Zone (3per cent) and Central Zone (1.3per cent) and Northern Zone (1.2per cent). Only Southern Zone registered a marginal dip of 0.8 percent. 9

Women’s access to poverty alleviation programmes :

Women’s access to poverty alleviation programmes Multidimensional approach Health Education Employment Skills upgradation Decision making Political participation Social Security- Dignity 10

Globalisation:

Globalisation Low income is a consequence of the social bias women face in trying to obtain formal employment, which in turn deepens the cycle of poverty. As the number of unmarried women increases, the diverse causes affecting their poverty must be examined Poverty is multidimensional, and therefore economic, demographic, and socio-cultural factors all overlap and contribute to the establishment of poverty. It is a phenomenon with multiple root causes and manifestations 11

Major challenge:

Major challenge Primitive accumulation in its classical form included plunder, slavery and colonialism, while primitive accumulation in the contemporary period includes sweat- shops, labour concentration camps and criminalisation of the working class. In 1998, the world economy had 1.2 billion poor i.e. population with an income of less than 1 dollar per capita per day. In this situation, is development possible without supranational or even intra-national redistribution of the sources of wealth and prosperity? Social Protection and Social Security for women 12

New Economic Policies and Feminisation of Poverty:

New Economic Policies and Feminisation of Poverty Compounded by unemployment, malnourishment, and sickness, India's integration into the Global Economy has backlashed disastrously. Government pricing policies and encouragement of high-input, export cash crops, notably sugarcane and cotton, have further impoverished both communities and the environment, as evidenced from the human impact of a thriving slavery market and a worsening food crisis, and the environmental consequences of harmful pesticides and a depleted water table and employment . 13

Thank you:

Thank you 14

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