Gender Concerns in Women's Studies & Women's Movement in Contemporary

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VAW is understood as Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, widow burning, female infanticide, pre-birth elimination of girls, crimes against women and girls in the name of honour, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation; Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution; Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.

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Gender Concerns in Women's Studies and Women's Movement in Contemporary Context :

8/5/2012 1 Gender Concerns in Women's Studies and Women's Movement in Contemporary Context Dr. Vibhuti Patel Director, PGSR Professor and Head, Post Graduate Department of Economics, SNDT Women’s University, Churchgate, Mumbai-400020 Phone-91-022-26770227® Mobile-9321040048 E mail- vibhuti.np@ mail.com

Social Exclusion and Rights of Minorities:

Social Exclusion and Rights of Minorities Dalit Feminists, Ethnic Group Sachar Committee Report, 2007 UN Special Rapporteur: "Racism subsumed in the caste system still plays a role in violence and social displacement in India. The 3,000-year-old caste system of social hierarchy still excludes millions of Dalits ("untouchables"). Even though the nation's 1950 Constitution outlawed discrimination and introduced quotas for government jobs, thereby promoting millions of former untouchables and members of indigenous tribes, the system still leaves much to be desired. UN Commission on Human Rights, 60th Session, Item 6: Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and all forms of discrimination, 22-3-2004 8/5/2012 2

2. Missing girls, Declining Child Sex ratio:

2. Missing girls, Declining Child Sex ratio India had deficit of 60 lakh girls in age-group of 0-6 years, when it entered the new millennium. As per the Census of India, child (0-6 age group) sex ratios were 971, 945, 927 and 914 for 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011 respectively. Now, it is officially accepted that, this deplorable scenario is a result of the widespread use of SD and SP tests throughout the country. PCPNT Act, 2002 8/5/2012 3

3. Honour Killing:

3. Honour Killing Crimes in the name of ‘honour’ are on a rise in our country. Both rural as well as urban areas are gripped with instances of horrific crimes where young citizens of our country are being killed for exercising their democratic right of choosing their life partners. The democratic minded people of our country are both shocked and distressed by these incidents 8/5/2012 4

Response of Women’s Movement:

Response of Women’s Movement . During last three decades, women’s movement in India has provided institutional support to young lovers and newly married couples faced with life-threatening consequences. The murders of young women and men, who have married by choice or across caste barriers, often go unnoticed. There are no statistics on loss of lives due to honour related crimes. Many are not investigated because the community closes ranks, apparently making it impossible to find out what really happened. 8/5/2012 5

Need for a law:

Need for a law Spate of violence against love marriages involving couples from same Gotra and same village at the behest of caste panchayats (councils) meting Kangaroo justice, has forced women’s rights organizations to demand laws deciding parameters within which caste councils can exercise their rights in the name of ‘identity’. Though the mainstream media, politicians and community leaders call such barbaric acts of lynching, burning, stoning, brutally murdering young lovers ‘honour killing’, feminists refuse this term and declare it as ‘custodial killing’ 8/5/2012 6

Analytical framework:

Analytical framework Political Economy of ‘Honour killing’ Material basis of Andocentric Practices Elite Set the standards The Structures of Power that Make Such Violence Possible Inter Caste Marriages History of Inter-caste and Inter-religious Marriages in India Radicalisation of Indian Youth in the 1970s Current scenario-Moral policing 8/5/2012 7

4. Violence against Women:

4. Violence against Women VAW is understood as Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, widow burning, female infanticide, pre-birth elimination of girls, crimes against women and girls in the name of honour, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation; Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution; Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs. 8/5/2012 8

Militarisation and VAW:

8/5/2012 9 Militarisation and VAW In Manipur, the military rulers use rape as a means of social control and use torture for women deemed dangerous to the regime. Politics of rape in Kashmir conflict, tragedy of Tamil women in conflict, insurgency in Nepal. Jingoism in South Asia- Insecurity for women. Women as carriers for smuggling, in border regions-Women in refugee camps. In region constituting “Killing fields in Kampuchea” women constitute 2/3 of population . Chhattisgarh, West Bengal

Domestic Violence :

8/5/2012 10 Domestic Violence Domestic abuse is everywhere in India, still, no shelter-home for women. In most Asian countries, no state provision against marital rape. India was the 1 st to enact the Family Courts Act (1984). Women’s Protection Bill (2002) to be tabled soon. Women’s movement has pushed for legislation to provide protection for abused women. After 10 years of lobbying, Malaysia was the 1 st to enact DV act, 1994. It has been studied by Islamic countries. Crisis Centers in hospitals-Philippines, Malaysia. Dilaasa, BMC & Women’s Cell in Police Station

How to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse :

8/5/2012 11 How to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse Counseling in school, neighbourhood Public discussion, TV coverage, radio-talks Code of conduct- dos & don’ts- “It is O.K. to say ‘No’ ”- Assertiveness training- “Speak out, don’t suffer in silence.” Docudrama and role play for class-room teaching Custodial situation-hostels, jails, mental hospitals, orphanages, shelter homes-accountability, transparency, media coverage. Visually effective posters showing safe alternatives targeted at school-going and other children.

Prostitution :

8/5/2012 12 Prostitution Common legislation for the region to deal with cross country trafficking . Decriminalisation of victims of prostitution. Targeting 4 Ps- procurers, pimps, police, politicians. Dealing with black-mailers. State funding for rehabilitation of prostitutes and salary of frontline workers. Custodial care and developmental needs of ex-prostitutes-education, skills, employment, healthy recreational activities. Close collaboration between GOs and NGO * Analytical, not sensational writings on prostitution .

Culture Specific VAW- Role of Manu, Mulla and Confucian Ideologies:

8/5/2012 13 Culture Specific VAW- Role of Manu, Mulla and Confucian Ideologies Dowry harassment and bride burning among Hindu, Muslim and Christian women of the Indian origin. NRIs. Widow-burning- Suttee (Sati) in India . Bangladesh-Throwing of acid-blubs Hadood Ordinance-women as witnesses in cases of rape, battering, assault, molestation Honour killing, Clitoredectomy, human sacrifice Islamic punishment for “Adultress”. Son preference and neglect of girl child in Asia. * Mass rape of women in Caste & Communal riots .

The United Nations and VAW :

8/5/2012 14 The United Nations and VAW As per Convention on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), “All States are obliged to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls.” Beijing Declaration, Platform for Action, The UN World Conference on Women, China, 1995. 3 major UN Conferences that discussed VAW- The Vienna Declaration (1993), the Declaration of Elimination of VAW (1994) and the CEDAW, 1995).

Laws Concerning VAW :

8/5/2012 15 Laws Concerning VAW Broadening the definition of domestic violence to include violence against women senior citizens (abuse of “mentally unfit” certificate),incest & rape by family members, relatives forcing women & girls into prostitution. Country-specific campaigns for legal reforms by human/women rights organisation- PCPNDT Act (India), Hudood Ordinance (Pakistan), Acid Attacks (Bangladesh), Family laws and customary practices need global solidarity. Public Interest Litigations to deal with sexual harassment at work-place. Need for legal safety.

Media and VAW:

8/5/2012 16 Media and VAW Monitoring of covert & overt VAW in print and audio-visual media. Public debate for mass education on construction of men-woman relationship- sex-stereotypes, glorification of angry, aggressive HE man and masochist woman. Media Alternatives for non-violent relationship between men and women. “Suffering in silence is not a virtue.” Appeal of Male protagonists. Demand for Portrayal of women’s agency as an active contributor for social/ human development. Positive projection of Women headed households (WHH) and special problems faced by WHH-jobs, housing, schooling of their children, property right.

Self Defense and Assertiveness Training:

8/5/2012 17 Self Defense and Assertiveness Training Counseling for personality development and assertiveness training. Techniques- use of loud voice to prevent violence. Physical power to handle violence. Self defense courses-Karate, martial art Dealing with anorexia nervosa and bulimia-eating disorders due to violence or anticipation of violence. Female autonomy, economic empowerment and improved status of girl child. Public discussion on Myths and Facts Recognition of VAW as social problem

State and Civil Society Initiatives:

8/5/2012 18 State and Civil Society Initiatives “Because Personal is political”-TISS, Mumbai- Documentation of 10 years of work against VAW. One stop crisis centre-Dilaasa Training for the police force, judiciary, doctors and hospital staff, lawyers, media, politicians, administration and the members of Women’s Commissions. Resource kit for workers in caring professions that teaches various techniques of handing acts of violent and aggressive behaviour. Encouraging men’s involvement as partners. Violence is learned, not innate behaviour. Complementary rehabilitative programmes for abusers.

Posters of Women’s Movement:

8/5/2012 19 Posters of Women’s Movement

Thank you:

Thank you 8/5/2012 20

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