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Share a few drops of tears for them……. Because they are the displaced… Give them, a little from your compassion… because they are the dispossessed.

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Women constitutes almost half the affected and displaced population in the world.


REHABILITATION AND RESETTLEMENT (R&R) It is a multidimensional issue having complex linkages with gender, livelihood and even governance facets. Main terms involved in R&R are: Relief: It means the immediate support offered to the affected persons during a disaster, that disrupts the normal routine of life, causing loss of life and property.

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Rehabilitation: Literal meaning of rehabilitation is the restoration of someone to a useful place in society by re- establishing incomes, livelihood, living and social systems. Resettlement: Is used to define the process of starting of a new life in another part of the country. Together Rehabilitation and Resettlement promote sustainable development.

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Stage 1: Relief Stage 2: Rehabilitation Stage 3: Resettlement

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Let us see the R&R policy framework:

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R&R policy frame work Good governance policy inputs Output Outcome Gender and child issues, vulnerable section issues Reduction in inequality and disparity Poverty alleviation, livelihood opportunities Poverty reduction, livelihood promotion Environment issue, Smart Governance Equitable growth and sustainable development Positive contribution to Millennium Development Goals (MDG)

How they are displaced?:

How they are displaced? Infrastructure projects: mainly forced displacement. Sardar Sarovar Project, construction of roads etc are examples. Natural calamities: In the form of earthquake, cyclones, famines, floods, acid rains etc. Tsunami occurred at the Asian coasts is one of the ferocious that occurred.

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Terrorist Attacks: A real threat to World peace.

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Our country has witnessed and is witnessing a large number of terrorist attacks. Mumbai bomb blast series, Delhi, Coimbatore bomb-blasts, ULFA attacks at Assam etc are some of them. The LTTE attacks compel many Tamil families to migrate from Lanka to Tamil coast. The specialty of these attacks is that the innocent people are being murdered or being dispossessed.

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Civil outbursts: Internal chaos inside a nation. Political riots, communal riots and both of these combined. Refugee flow becomes a head ache for the authorities Ex- Service men also should be rehabilitated in civil life after their release from the service on account of their truncated career.

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Financially deprived: Number of families displaced due to financial crisis. Wars: The most important and terrific creator of refugees as well as IDPs.

What are the problems suffered by the displaced?:

What are the problems suffered by the displaced? Mental problems: Anxiety, depression, sleeplessness, avoidance of total contact with outside world and even suicidal tendency. Physical problems: Untidy refugee camps invite contagious diseases. Pure water will be a dream. Typhoid, cholera, dysentery, diarrhea attack the camps.

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Financial problems: The displaced are dispossessed. They reach a camp leaving all their earnings in their native land. No provisions to buy medicine, construct their own shelter or to educate their young ones. Anarchy: IDPs are considered as a burden by the authority. No proper control from the Government for their resettlement lead to anarchy and confusion.

Common threats to the security of IDPs:

Direct attacks and ill treatments. Deprivation of property. Common threats to the security of IDPs

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Increased risk and the families will be torn apart and that children, in particular, will be separated from their parents or other relatives. Increased risk of rape or sexual violence against women and girls. Increased exposure to health hazards. Restricted access to essential goods and services including health care. Exposure to collateral risks in attempting to meet essential needs. Presence of weapon bearers in camps.

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Risk of tension between communities and displaced people. Forced recruitment.

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Settlement in unsafe or unfit locations. Forced return to unsafe areas.

How they are resettled?:

How they are resettled? Government undertakes many organizations to resettle the displaced. Some private or semi-private organizations, referred to as Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) also take fruitful steps.

1) The Directorate General Resettlement. (DGR):

1) The Directorate General Resettlement. (DGR) An Interservice organization functioning directly under the Ministry Of Defence. Numerous retired personnel from the Armed Forces are rehabilitated in useful and productive ventures.

2) Office of Refugee Resettlement:

2) Office of Refugee Resettlement ORR takes many constructive as well as creative measures among refugees. ORR is located in US. Build and bridge cultural and information gaps to ensure that the refugees get needed care.

3) Interservice Institution for Ex-service men resettlement.:

3) Interservice Institution for Ex-service men resettlement. Undertakes the resettlement of Ex service men by providing re-employment in the organized sector or through self employment. At the Centre, the Ex-Servicemen Welfare Wing acts. The central government provides : 1) Training programs to re-orient retiring defence personnel towards Civil employment. 2) Reservation of posts for providing re-employment chances in Govt./ Semi Govt./ public sector organizations. 3) Schemes for self-employment.

4) Resettlement Plans.:

4) Resettlement Plans. Under ADB’s policy on Involuntary Resettlement, Govts. or NGOs shall submit a satisfactory Resettlement Plan. The 11 elements of a satisfactory Resettlement Plan are: 1) Organizational responsibilities. 2) Community participation and integration with host population. 3) Socio- economic Survey. 4) Legal framework.

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5) Identification of alternative sites and selection. 6) Valuation of; and compensation for; lost assets. 7) Land ownership, tenure, acquisition and transfer. 8) Access to training, employment and credit. 9) Shelter, infrastructure and social services. 10) Environmental protection and management. 11) Implementation schedule, monitoring and evaluation.

5) Humanitarian Resettlement (HR):

5) Humanitarian Resettlement (HR) Started by the Govt. of USA and the Republic of Vietnam in Vietnam. It continues the refugee work started by the Orderly Departure program (ODP) over 20 years ago.

6) International Humanitarian Law.:

6) International Humanitarian Law.

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The four Geneva conventions of 1949 laid the foundations of International Humanitarian Law (IHL). Many provisions of the International Humanitarian Law are now accepted as customary law or general rules by which all states are bound. Internal displacement is often the consequence of violation of IHL.

7) International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movements.:

7) International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movements. Comprises the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (National Societies), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (International Federation) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). The Council of Delegates is the body where representatives of the ICRC, the International Federation and the National Societies meet to discuss matters of common concern.

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ICRC enable people to maintain an environment, as close as possible to their earlier one, from which they were expelled.

ICRC activities on IDP’s. :

ICRC activities on IDP’s. Interventions to persuade authorities and Armed groups to fulfill their obligations to protect civilian populations. Efforts to restore family links. Distribution of relief materials such as food, water, essential household items, seed and farming tools. First aid and surgery, hygiene and health care programs.

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Livelihood support programs such as micro economic initiatives, agricultural and livestock support. Mine- action programs, including prevention. Provision of artificial limbs.

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Mission of ICRC:

Mission of ICRC An impartial, neutral and independent organization. Exclusively Humanitarian mission. It directs and co ordinates the international relief activities conducted by various movements.

8) Local organizations:

8) Local organizations A mind full of humane and compassionate feelings towards the displaced people can set up a R&R centre.

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Expand your heart........ Think........... Don’t they- the dispossessed- too have the right to live in this world? Just keep this in mind..... They also have the right to breathe the same air that we inhale. So be active in providing the Rehabilitation and Resettlement for the displaced.....



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