Exploring the Universe : Exploring the Universe Nicholas White
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Slide 2: 2 M101 Pinwheel Galaxy from HST Slide 3: 3 Exploring the Universe with Hubble Ultra-Deep Field reveals galaxies forming and evolving Slide 4: 4 What happens close to a Black Hole? Exploring at the Edge of a Black Hole The Chandra X-ray Deep Field The Birth of Black Holes!SWIFT : 5 The Birth of Black Holes!SWIFT SWIFT detects the most distant explosion
12.8 billion light years away! Distant Gamma Ray burst Nearby Gamma ray burst Swift Slide 6: 6 Exploring the beginning of Time! Baby picture of the Universe from the
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Slide 7: 7 History of the Universe What powered the Big Bang? Slide 8: 8 Using Supernovae to Measure the Expansion of the Universe Exploring the Dark Side of the Universe : 9 Exploring the Dark Side of the Universe We do not know what 95% of the Universe is made of! 70% is a mysterious Dark Energy that is causing the expansion of the Universe to accelerate Exploring other Solar Systems : 10 Exploring other Solar Systems How many planets are there around nearby stars
Where are the nearest Terrestrial Planets?
Does any planet outside the Earth harbor life? Slide 11: 11 Detecting and Characterizing Exo-Solar Planets Spitzer Slide 12: 12 The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Exploration of the Universe Astrophysics
Future Observatories Slide 13: 13 30-100 times improved sensitivity for high energy gamma rays Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope View along the relativistic jets from Black Holes “Cosmic accelerators”
Search for the gamma-ray signature from the decay of dark matter particles Launch: Fall 2007 GLAST is a joint NASA-DoE program, a pathfinder for the future Slide 14: 14 HST at the apex of its capabilities after the fourth servicing mission Wide Field Camera3 + Advanced Camera for Surveys = Most powerful HST imaging Cosmic Object Spectrograph + repaired ST Imaging Spectrograph = Full set of spectroscopy tools for astrophysics Batteries+Gyros+FGS = Sustained HST Lifetime through 2008 to 2013 HST Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) Configuration (Preliminary) : 15 HST Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) Configuration (Preliminary) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Wide Field Camera 3 Fine Guidance Sensor Rate Sensor Units Batteries Flight Support System Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier Orbital Replacement Unit Carrier Multi-use Logistic Equipment Carrier Soft Capture Mechanism Evolution of the Cosmic Web of Dark Matter : Quasar absorption lines
trace the “cosmic web” of
material between the galaxies Hydrogen and helium constitute 99% of ordinary matter in the universe, called baryons
Most of the baryons are currently unseen and should reside in the space between galaxies (the IGM)
The baryons are mixed with Dark Matter and trace its distribution
We study this distribution by detecting absorption lines from baryons in the spectra of quasars
COS will expand the number of quasars, hence sight lines explored, by 2 orders of magnitude, thus mapping Dark Matter to high accuracy Evolution of the Cosmic Web of Dark Matter Visualization concept from Schiminovich & Martin
Numerical simulation from Cen & Ostriker (1998)
Songaila et al. (1995) Keck spectrum adapted by Lindler & Heap Wide Field Camera 3 : 17 Wide Field Camera 3 Capabilities
Imaging from 2000 Å to 1.7 m
Huge improvement in near-UV, near-IR imaging Ultraviolet Near-IR The JWST Observatory: The Exploration Time Machine : The JWST Observatory: The Exploration Time Machine Secondary Mirror (SM) Primary Mirror (PM) Instrument
module Sunshield Spacecraft Bus Telescope Cold, space-facing side Warm, Sun-facing side Launch 2013 JWST Science Objectives versus Cosmic History : JWST Science Objectives versus Cosmic History Big Bang Particle Physics Now Atoms & Radiation First Galaxies Star & Planet Formation 300,000 years 3 minutes 1 billion years 13.7 billion years 200 million years Galaxies Evolve Origin of Life & Intelligence Study the birth and evolution galaxies
See “First Light Objects”
Study star and planet formation
Coronagraphs will study of debris disks and Extrasolar Giant Planets
Transit spectroscopy of planets JWST Simulated Deep Field : JWST Simulated Deep Field End of the dark ages: first light and reionization : End of the dark ages: first light and reionization What are the first galaxies (beyond those seen by Hubble at z = 6)?
When did reionization occur?
Once or twice?
What sources caused reionization? Ultra-deep field
Spectrum of distant quasars
Studies of faint galaxies The assembly of galaxies : The assembly of galaxies Where and when did the Hubble Sequence (of galaxy shapes) form? (probably after redshift 6)
How did the heavy elements form?
What theories explain the shapes and histories of galaxies?
What about star-forming galaxies and giant black holes? Galaxies in GOODS Field Wide-area imaging survey
Spectroscopy of thousands of galaxies
Targeted observations of extreme galaxies Planetary systems and the origins of life : Planetary systems and the origins of life How do planets form?
Are exosolar systems like our own?
How are habitable zones established?
Detection of planets via debris disks
Directly image very young planets
Indirectly detect planets via their footprints in debris disks Exosolar giant planets
direct imaging by blocking star’s light
Spectra of organic molecules in disks, comets and Kuiper belt objects in outer solar system
Atmospheric composition of exosolar planets
Observe transits of planets Titan Visible (HST) Spitzer (24 m) JWST (20 m) Fomalhaut Slide 24: Full-scale Mockup of JWST JWST Deployment : JWST Deployment Slide 26: What powered the Big Bang?
What happens at the edge of a Black Hole?
What is Dark Energy? National Aeronautics and Space Administration Late 19th Century . . . : 27 Late 19th Century . . . Many physicists were certain that our understanding of the physical Universe was almost complete
But – there remained a few little problems: The speed of light seemed to be independent of the reference frame in which it was measured
Hot objects predicted to radiate infinite amounts of energy (clearly contradicted by experiments! “UV catastrophe”) Solutions revolutionized physics –
Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics were born! The Theory of Relativity : 28 The Theory of Relativity GR is a very rich and mathematically complex theory many surprises in store! Einstein changed the way we think of the Universe:
The speed of light is the ultimate speed limit.
Time passes more slowly for observers traveling at high speeds or near a massive body.
Light rays can be bent passing near a massive body. Einstein’s Predictions : 29 Einstein’s Predictions Three startling outcomes of Einstein’s general relativity:
The expansion of the Universe (from a Big Bang)
A Cosmological Constant acting against the pull of gravity Observations confirm these outcomes . . . Completing Einstein’s Legacy : 30 Completing Einstein’s Legacy Einstein’s legacy is incomplete, his theory fails to explain the underlying physics of the very phenomena his work predicted and to connect General Relativity to quantum mechanics
We are on the threshold of a breakthrough comparable to Einstein’s discoveries one century ago . . . What happens at the edge of a black hole? : 31 What happens at the edge of a black hole? How do these gravitational sinks power such powerful outflows? Is Einstein’s theory still right in these conditions of extreme gravity? Or is new physics awaiting us? Ultimate goal is to image a black hole! What Powered the Big Bang? : 32 What Powered the Big Bang? Ultimate goal is to directly detect the Big Bang! What is Dark Energy? : 33 Solving this mystery may fundamentally change our view of the Universe! What is Dark Energy? Supernovae Cosmic Microwave
Background Clusters of galaxies Matter Density Energy Density Multiple approaches needed to independently measure with high precision the expansion of the Universe
A key issues is whether the Dark Energy is a constant or evolves with time Beyond Einstein Program : 34 Beyond Einstein Program Constellation-X & LISA : 35 Constellation-X & LISA Constellation-X will use X-ray spectroscopy to observe:
Track matter spiraling into Black Holes
The effects of Dark Matter and Dark Energy
The Cycles of Matter and Energy LISA will search for Gravitational Wave Signals from:
Merging Black Holes
Compact binaries in our galaxy
The background radiation from the big bang Constellation-X Science Goals : 36 Constellation-X Science Goals Black Holes
Observe matter spiraling into Black Holes & test the predictions of General Relativity
Study distant/faint sources to trace the evolution of Black Holes with cosmic time
Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Use clusters of galaxies to trace the amount and evolution of Dark Energy
Determine the spatial distribution of Dark Matter in galaxies and galaxy clusters
Origin of the Elements, New States of matter, Cosmic Feedback
Investigate the influence of Black Holes on galaxy formation
Search for the hot missing matter in the Cosmic Web
Study behavior of matter at extreme densities & magnetic fields using neutron stars What happens close to a black hole? : What happens close to a black hole? Analysis of iron line variability (from orbital motion of disk & reverberation effects) allows to to separate effects of
Accretion disk physics
Requires superior collecting area of Constellation-X Slide 38: 38 HST Slide 39: 39 Gravitational Wave Astrophysics Black holes orbiting each other emit gravitational waves that cause them to merge to create a single black hole LISA Overview : 40 LISA Overview The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA-NASA mission to design, build and operate the first space-based gravitational wave detector.
The 5 million kilometer long detector will consist of three spacecraft orbiting the Sun in a triangular formation.
Space-time fluctuations induced by gravitational waves are detected by using a laser-based Michelson interferometer to monitor the changes in separation between test masses in the separate spacecraft to very high accuracy (1/100th the size of an atom) Einstein Probes : 41 Einstein Probes Joint Dark Energy Mission
Determine the evolution of dark energy with time
Identify the nature of dark energy
Partnership between NASA and DOE
Study imprints of gravitational waves from inflation on the cosmic microwave background or large scale structure
Determine when and how inflation occurred
Black Hole Finder Probe
To conduct a census of hidden black holes
Gamma ray bursts as Cosmological Probes Focused scientist led missions that each address a single high priority science topic, with the implementation approach selected by competition Exploring other Solar Systems : 42 Exploring other Solar Systems How many planets are there around nearby stars and what are their properties?
Where are the nearest Terrestrial Planets?
Does any planet outside the Earth harbor life? Precursor missions (Kepler, JWST, SIM) and ground observations will refine the TPF design parameters
Terrestrial Planet Finder will detect and characterize the light from terrestrial planets around nearby stars Slide 43: 43 How did the Universe begin?
Does time have a beginning and an end?
Are we alone?
The questions are as old as human curiosity
The answers have always seemed beyond the reach of science. . .
until now! Conclusion http://universe.gsfc.nasa.gov