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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Chapter 5 States of Consciousness Lecture Overview : Lecture Overview Issues in Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Drugs that Influence Consciousness Alternate States of Consciousness Slide 3: Consciousness: an organism’s awareness of its own self and surroundings Levels of awareness: HIGH: Controlled processes that require attention (and interfere with other functions) MIDDLE: Automatic processes requiring minimal attention (such as riding your bike) LOWEST: Minimal or no awareness of the environment Slide 4: Levels of awareness: HIGH: Controlled processes that require attention (and interfere with other functions) MIDDLE: Automatic processes requiring minimal attention (such as riding your bike) LOWEST: Minimal or no awareness of the environment Sleep : Sleep Sleep is a behavior AND an altered state of consciousness The nature of consciousness is changed during sleep We experience some dreaming during sleep We may recall very little of the mental activity that occurred during sleep We spend about a third of our lives in sleep EEG Changes During Sleep : EEG Changes During Sleep Summated brain wave activity (EEG) Wakefulness: beta activity (13-30 Hz) Eyes closed: alpha activity (8-12 Hz) EEG Changes During Sleep : EEG Changes During Sleep Stage 1: Light Sleep – Alpha Waves Stage 2: Eye movements & brain waves slow; sleep spindles EEG Changes During Sleep : EEG Changes During Sleep Stage 3: very slow waves - delta waves appear Stage 4: almost all delta waves Very hard to wake during this stage REM stage: rapid, irregular and shallow breathing, eyes jerk rapidly, both wake and sleep waves (sawtooth pattern) EEG Changes During Sleep : EEG Changes During Sleep Stage 3: very slow waves - delta waves appear Stage 4: almost all delta waves Very hard to wake during this stage REM stage: rapid, irregular and shallow breathing, eyes jerk rapidly, both wake and sleep waves (sawtooth pattern Theories of Sleep : Theories of Sleep Repair/Restoration Sleep allows for recuperation from physical, emotional, and intellectual fatigue Evolutionary/Circadian Sleep is part of a circadian cycle Sleep evolved to conserve energy and protect our ancestors from predators Sleep Duration in Mammals : Sleep Duration in Mammals Sleep and Dreams : Sleep and Dreams “Sometimes,a cigar is just a cigar.” - Freud, on the meaning of dreams Psychoanalytic: Dreams represent disguised symbols of repressed desires and anxieties (Freud) Manifest Content: symbols used to disguise true meaning of dream Latent Content: true unconscious meaning of a dream WHY DO WE DREAM!? : WHY DO WE DREAM!? Biological: Activation-synthesis hypothesis: Dreams represent random activation of brain cells during sleep Cognitive: Dreams help to sift and sort the events of the day Dyssomnias : Dyssomnias Insomnia - difficulty in getting to sleep or remaining asleep Situational: related to anxiety or excitement Drug-induced: sleeping pills (tolerance) Dyssomnias : Dyssomnias Sleep apnea: person stops breathing and is awakened when blood levels of carbon dioxide stimulate breathing Narcolepsy: Sleep appears at odd times Sleep attack: urge to sleep during the day Cataplexy: REM paralysis occurs, person is still conscious Myths of Sleep : Myths of Sleep Everyone needs 8 hrs of sleep per night to maintain good health Learning of complicated subjects such as calculus can be done during sleep Some people never dream Dreams last only a few seconds Genital arousal during sleep reflects dream content It is unrelated to sexual content May be a useful index of physical versus psychological causes of impotence in males Hypnosis : Hypnosis Hypnosis is an altered state of heightened suggestibility The hypnotic state is characterized by Narrow and focused attention Imagination and hallucinations Passive receptive attitude Reduced reaction to pain Heightened suggestibility Myths of Hypnosis : Myths of Hypnosis People can be hypnotized against their will People will do immoral things while hypnotized Hypnosis improves memory recall Hypnotized persons have special strength Hypnosis involves a form of role playing Altered States : Altered States Meditation refers to a set of techniques that promote a heightened sense of awareness Can involve body movements and posture, focusing of attention on a focal point, or control of breathing Meditation can induce relaxation, lower blood pressure, and can be associated with a sense of euphoria You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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