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SAUDI ARABIA Introduction: * Saudi Arabia ( i /ˌ saʊdi əˈreɪbi.ə / or i /ˌ sɔːdi ː əˈreɪbi.ə / ; Arabic : السعودية‎ as- Su‘ūdīyah or as- Sa‘ūdīyah ), officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ( Arabic : المملكة العربية السعودية‎ al- Mamlakah al-‘ Arabīyah as- Su‘ūdīyah Arabic pronunciation ( help · info )), is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula , and the second-largest in the Arab world , after Algeria .

History :

History Saudi Arabia is not only the homeland of the Arab peoples—it is thought that the first Arabs originated on the Arabian Peninsula—but also the homeland of Islam, the world's second-largest religion. Muhammad founded Islam there, and it is the location of the two holy pilgrimage cities of Mecca and Medina. The Islamic calendar begins in 622, the year of the hegira, or Muhammad's flight from Mecca. A succession of invaders attempted to control the peninsula, but by 1517 the Ottoman Empire dominated, and in the middle of the 18th century, it was divided into separate principalities. In 1745 Muhammad ibn ' Abd al- Wahhab began calling for the purification and reform of Islam, and the Wahhabi movement swept across Arabia. By 1811, Wahhabi leaders had waged a jihad—a holy war—against other forms of Islam on the peninsula and succeeded in uniting much of it. By 1818, however, the Wahhabis had been driven out of power again by the Ottomans and their Egyptian allies. The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is almost entirely the creation of King Ibn Saud (1882–1953). A descendant of Wahhabi leaders, he seized Riyadh in 1901 and set himself up as leader of the Arab nationalist movement. By 1906 he had established Wahhabi dominance in Nejd and conquered Hejaz in 1924–1925. The Hejaz and Nejd regions were merged to form the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, which was an absolute monarchy ruled by sharia . A year later the region of Asir was incorporated into the kingdom.

Geography :

Geography Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, with the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba to the west and the Persian Gulf to the east. Neighboring countries are Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, the Sultanate of Oman, Yemen, and Bahrain, connected to the Saudi mainland by a causeway. Saudi Arabia contains the world's largest continuous sand desert, the Rub Al-Khali, or Empty Quarter. Its oil region lies primarily in the eastern province along the Persian Gulf.


CLIMATE IN SAUDI ARABIA The Climate of Saudi Arabia is marked by high temperatures in summer that often shoot up to 45 degrees celsius or more, so make sure to stock up on sun protection gear, if you're planning a trip there in summer. The best period for Saudi Arabia Tourism is spring and autumn, when the average temperature remains approximately 29 degrees celsius . In winter, the temperatures seldom go below freezing point, so if you're willing to take on the excitement of the strong winds that occur throughout the season, you could visit the country in winter too.


RIYADH Riyadh ( / rɨˈjɑːd / ; Arabic : الرياض‎ transliterated Ar Riyāḍ pronounced [ ʔɑrːiˈjɑːdˤ ] , English: The Gardens) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia . It is also the capital of Riyadh Province , and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al- Yamama . It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a region with a population of close to 7 million people. The city is divided into 15 municipal districts, managed by Riyadh Municipality headed by the mayor of Riyadh, and the Riyadh Development Authority, chaired by the Governor of Riyadh Province, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz .

Riyadh Weather, Temperature and the Climate of RIYADH SAUDI ARABIA.:

Riyadh Weather, Temperature and the Climate of RIYADH SAUDI ARABIA. Riyadh's Weather and a brief look at the climate of Kuwait for those visiting. Riyadh is located in Eastern Central Saudi Arabia, is sou rounded by desert, and is the Capitol of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh gets very hot in summer and as it is at 2000 feet it can get cold in winter.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Summer temperatures can be very hot, exceeding 50 degrees Celsius at times, but luckily as the city is located a long way from the sea, Riyadh weather tends not to suffer from humidity making the high temperatures more livable. The average high temperature in Riyadh in July is 45°C. Winters are mild with cold nights with the temperature dropping bellow zero at times. The overall climate is arid, receiving very little rainfall, what little rain Riyadh has usually occurs between November and May, but when it does rain it can be heavy and can lead to flash floods as the water tries to run off the dry ground. Winter storms can also be accompanied by hail.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Riyadh has many dust storms throughout the year, the dust is often so thick that visibility is reduced to less than 10 meters. Mean relative humidity for an average year is recorded as 24.5% and on a monthly basis it ranges from 10% in September to 46% in December The best time to visit Riyadh is from the months of October to May. During this time day temperatures are tolerable and nights are cooler and friendlier. Riyadh climate is characterized by average day temperatures of 8°C to 21°C in January, and 26°C to 42°C in July.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Climate data for Riyadh Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 31.5 34.8 38 42 45.1 49.8 52 47.8 44.5 41 36 31 52 -88.7 -94.6 -100.4 -107.6 -113.2 -121.6 -125.6 -118 -112.1 -105.8 -96.8 -87.8 -125.6 Average high °C (°F) 20.1 23 27.6 34 39.6 42.7 43.4 43.2 41.3 35.1 27.6 22 33.1 -68.2 -73.4 -81.7 -93.2 -103.3 -108.9 -110.1 -109.8 -106.3 -95.2 -81.7 -71.6 -91.6 Daily mean °C (°F) 14.4 16.9 21.1 26.9 32.9 35.4 36.6 36.5 33.3 28.2 21.4 16.1 26.6 -57.9 -62.4 -70 -80.4 -91.2 -95.7 -97.9 -97.7 -91.9 -82.8 -70.5 -61 -79.9 Average low °C (°F) 6.9 9 15 20.3 25.7 27.6 29.1 28.8 25.7 20.9 15.3 8.4 19.9 -44.4 -48.2 -59 -68.5 -78.3 -81.7 -84.4 -83.8 -78.3 -69.6 -59.5 -47.1 -67.8 Record low °C (°F) −1 0.5 4.5 11 18 21 23.6 22.7 16.1 13 7 1.4 −1 -30 -32.9 -40.1 -51.8 -64.4 -70 -74.5 -72.9 -61 -55.4 -44.6 -34.5 -30 Rainfall mm (inches) 11.7 8.5 24.7 22.3 4.6 0 0 0.2 0 1.7 7.9 13 94.6 -0.461 -0.335 -0.972 -0.878 -0.181 0 0 -0.008 0 -0.067 -0.311 -0.512 -3.724 % humidity 47 38 34 28 17 11 10 12 14 21 36 47 26 Avg. precipitation days 5.8 4.8 9.8 10 3.5 0 0.2 0.2 0 1.2 3.4 6.3 45.2

Riyadh Climate Graph :

Riyadh Climate Graph

Wind speed/direction in Riyadh:

Wind speed/direction in Riyadh Dominant wind direction in Riyadh is from north, northeast and northwest sides. Average wind speed during 1318-1417H was around 5 knots/hour (approximately 8 miles/hour), while the highest speed during the same period was about 25 knots/hour. Mostly wind runs from north. The lowest rate of wind speed was 1.6 knots/hour, and the lowest recorded wind speed was 0.8 knots/hour . RAINFALL Annual rainfall in Riyadh average 100mm (4in) and falls almost exclusively between january and may;

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